A.1. Read the items given below. Some are sentences and have a finite verb. Others are phrases and have a non-finite verb. Writefor sentences and for phrases in the boxes provided.
- Subroto is playing with my brother.
- Playing the piano.
- Trees fallen on the road
- Rohan fell down and hurt himself.
- The medals won by our house
- This year we won the gold medal.
- Hanging on a silver chain
- Sheetal is hanging the decorations in the room.
- It is impossible to ignore the beggars on the roads.
- Ignoring my warnings
- I swim for an hour daily.
- To swim in the pool
A.2. Now read the items again. Circle the non-finite verbs. Write them in the box below. How many types of non-finite verbs do you have?
Answer: Three type of non-finite verbs: Gerunds, Infinitives, Particples
A.3 Look at the pictures and complete the story below them, using an appropriate form of one of the verbs in the box below.
One night Bhola, while + _watching_ the sky from his verandah, heard a strange sound. Just about + _to land_ in the forest nearby was a spacecraft. Next day the people of the town were + _running_ away from their homes, frightened by the strange creatures who had landed in their midst. The intruders ran all over the town, + _stealing_ food, money and all that they could lay their hands on. Scared out of his wits, Bhola hid in the bushes. +_Looking_ through his binoculars, Bhola * _saw_ one of the intruders + _peering__ into a box. On + _finding__ a small mouse + _jumping__ out of the box, the intruder * _sped_ off in terror. This gave Bhola an idea. He spent the next day +_searching_ for mice.
Next morning Bhola * _took/left_ a cage full of mice to the spacecraft and set them free. On +_seeing_ the mice, the intruders were too frightened + _to stay_ on Earth any longer, and they * _ran/left__ in their spacecraft immediately.
(Note: peer means look keenly).
A. 4 Now put the verbs you have just filled in above, in column A (verbs marked +) and B (verbs marked*) below.Answer:
|COLUMN A (verbs marked +)||COLUMN B (verbs marked*)|
A5.Study the verbs given in Column A and Column B. How do they differ from each other?The verbs in Column A are not controlled by the number, person and tense of their subject. Therefore they are …Non-Finites…..
The verbs in Column B are controlled by the number, person and tense of their subject. Therefore they are …Finite Verbs..
What are the verbs in Column A called ?
A. 5 Here is part of a letter that Anuradha wrote to Raji about her experience in a city that she was visiting. Complete the letter using suitable nonfinites.
A.6. Given below is an extract from the story The Iron Man and The Space Being. Complete the story using suitable non-finite verbs. You may choose words from the box given below.worry change peer hit frighten blaze
- frightened voices
- begun to change
- peering through
- worried frowns
- blazing planet
- hitting a bowl
A.7. While reading a magazine advertising home products, Sakshi Aggarwal came across an advertisement for a stain remover called Dr Clean. She decided to buy the product but it caused more harm than good. Complete the letter of complaint she writes to the company using appropriate words.
- wish to bring
- to remove
- to say the least
- to remove a stain
- Spraying the stain remover
B.2 Underline the present participle and circle the noun it describes in the following sentences as shown in the example above.
a) The policeman saw a thief escaping on a motorbike.
b) Hearing a loud sound, the students rushed out of the classroom.
c) I can hear the school choir practicing in the auditorium.
d) The player was happy seeing that his opponent was growing tired.
B.3 Fill in the blanks using the correct from of the words given in the box below.
When the teacher caught the boy _cheating_ in the examination, he stood there _trembling__ and _quivering__. _Hearing_ the loud admonition of the teacher, the headmaster rushed in. The boy started to cry _fearing_ that he would be expelled from the school. _Assessing_ the situation very quickly, the headmaster asked the boy to follow him to his room.
B. 5 Complete the sentences using 'ing' form of the verbs from the box.
- The doctor advised Neelam to avoid _using__ ghee as a cooking medium.
- I have had to put off _buying___ a scooter for my son until he completes his college studies.
- How about __applying_____ for the post of teacher in the neighbouring school?
- By the time we finished _cleaning___ the house, the children had become hungry.
- She went around __meeting__ all the tenants in the apartment house, canvassing support for her cleanliness campaign.
- I am afraid the doctor is busy now. Would you mind __waiting__ a few minutes?
B.6 Now combine the following pairs of sentences using a suitable verb in its 'ing' form.Answer:
- Making mistakes is human.
- Telling lies has made Sheela unpopular.
- The police prevented us while entering the pavilion.
- Our neighbours apologised for making a lot of noise.
- I congratulated Murari on passing the examination.
- I don't like her talking too much.
- Appreciating other people's achievements promotes goodwill.
Why don't you try?
Give the solutions to the problems below using the 'ing' form of the verb. Make the solutions as unusual as possible.
1. There's a fly in my soup.
Why don't you try drowning it.
Why don't you try eating it before it drowns.
2. My car isn't starting.
Why don't you try kick starting it.
3. My hands and feet are frozen!
Why don't you try cutting them with knife.
4. A man is trying to steal my car!
Why don't you try stealing his.
5. My sister/brother doesn't stop talking.
Why don't you try making faces at them.
6. I have a headache.
Why don't you try banging your head.
C.2 Explain the following signs using to + verb as shown:Answer:
- You are not allowed to park your vehicles here.
- Authorised persons are allowed to enter here.
- This water is safe to drink.
- Workers are required to wear face shield here.
- You are not allowed to enter the restricted zone.
- It is hazardous to climb on equipment.
C.3 Work in pairs. One of you will ask the questions, the other will give the answers with the help of the clues in brackets. Write them down in the spaces provided.
1. Why are you waiting here? (meet the teacher)
⇒ I am waiting to meet the teacher.
2. Why did you return home early? (help with the housework)
⇒ I returned home early to help with housework.
3. Why is Raju going abroad? (visit his sister)
⇒Raju is going abroad to visit his sister.
4. Why did Kiran sell her car? ( buy a van)
⇒Kiran sold her car to buy a van.
5. Why did you travel by bus? (save money)
⇒ I travelled by bus to save money.
C.4 Complete the sentences as in the example, using the verbs given in the box. Do not use any verbs more than once.
- He asked me to promise that I would not tell mother about our quarrel.
- He advised me to go to police.
- Sushila encouraged me to buy a new dress.
- Anil advised me not to drive so fast.
- The teacher permitted me to go to the library.
C.5 Rewrite the sentences using an infinitive instead of the underlined clause.Answer:
- Shah found Rs. 20,000 of the sales money to be missing from the box.
- The Court declared the officer to be guilty of gross negligence.
- Evidence showed the document to be a fabrication.
- The court warned the representatives not to tamper with the evidence.
- The minister was annoyed to learn that he had lost the elections.
- You would be silly to dye your hair green.
D. Verb + ing and InfinitivesD.1 1. I saw her cross the road.
2. I saw her crossing the road.
What is the difference in the use of the underlined verb in the two sentences?
Answer: The first sentence tells that when I saw her she was already on the other side of the road. While the second sentence tells that the lady was in the middle of the road and was going to other side when I saw her.
D.2 In pairs, use the grid below to complete the following sentences.Answer:
- Our English teacher refused to allow us eat our lunch in the corridor.
- Ram's mother let all of us play in the backyard.
- Making students wear necktie against their will is unfair.
- 'Dear Sir, Would you kindly permit us visit Science Exhibition next Tuesday.
D.3 Complete the following letter. Put the verbs in brackets into either the 'ing' form or the infinitive with to. Use the box below to help you.
|+ -ing||+ to do|
look forward to
|want Offer |
- to hold
- to introduce
- to supply
- to deliver
- to contact
D.4 Now complete the following sentences appropriately using 'ing' or infinitive construction. Use the grid given above to write your answers. You may have to add prepositions in some sentences.
- Would you mind helping me solve this problem.
- Most children enjoy playing video games.
- I'll never forget winning my first tournament when I was 18 years old.
- I remember playing that game when I was younger.
- Our teacher dislikes scolding students for being late.
- The commander told the soldiers to gun down the captives.
- I do not intend to enter politics.
- The inspector is certain to welcome this kind of recommendation.
- My father was very angry with the grocer for shipping poor quality grains.
- My brother likes to sing and dance.
D.5. Complete the sentences using the correct non-finite form of the verbs given in brackets.
- I regret _being_ (be) rude to you.
- to inform
- to eat
- to say that
E.1 Underline the past participle and circle the noun it qualifies in the following sentences:
- Driven by hunger, the elephant herd entered the sugar cane field adjoining
- Trucks, loaded with rice, left for the flood-hit area.
- Hurt by little John, Robin Hood started fighting in earnest.
- The greedy merchant did not know where to hide his ill-gotten wealth.
- Bent with age, the old postmaster totters along everyday to work
- Powered by the reforms, the economy will register appreciable growth in the next quarter.
E.2 Combine each to the following pairs of sentences, using the correct form of the verbs.
- Surprised by Asif's return of service, Leander started playing in earnest.
- Having completed her homework, Rajani wants to go to play.
- Utterly bored with his studies, Gopal went out for a walk.
- startled by the noise, Sita jumped out of her bed.
- Chased by the police, the smuggler hid in a thicket.
- Stunned by the news, Meenu stood rooted to the spot.
E.4 Provide suitable headlines for the following news items. In your headlines, use the past participle form of appropriate verbs.
- Muster beaten in the first round of Lyon Grand Prix
- SC advocates court proceedings by experienced legal journalists only
- Imposter Cop arrested by Chandni Chowk Police
- Nine roasted alive and 65 suffered burns by a mob at Bhangapara
F. Non-Finites Summary
F.1. Look at the pictures. Describe each picture with an appropriate non-finite as shown. Try not to repeat the verbs.
- a broken scale
- a crying kid
- a tree fallen apart
- a running horse / a sprinting horse
- a leaking pipe / a leaked pipe
- a torn shoe
F2. Rewrite the following sentences making the necessary changes so that they convey the intended meaning:
- The dog having bitten the post man, the farmer decided to shoot it.
- It being a rainy day, the organizers decided to postpone the match.
- Mary being fond of sweets, we planned to gift her a a big box of chocolates on her birthday.
- His work for the day being finished, the supervisor let him leave the factory early.
- While he was riding on a horse, the tiger jumped at him.
(Note: What's wrong with the following sentences?
1. Having bitten the postman, the farmer decided to punish the dog.
⇒ It appears the farmer has bitten the postman.
2. Being a rainy day, the organizers decided to postpone the match.
⇒ It indicates the organizers are rainy day.
3. Being fond of sweets, we planned to gift Mary a big box of chocolates on her birthday.
⇒ It looks like we are fond of sweets not Mary.
4. Having finished his work for the day, the supervisor let him leave the factory early.
⇒ This tells that the Supervisor has finished his work.
5. Riding on a horse, the tiger jumped at him.
⇒ Looks like tiger was riding on a horse.)
F3. Correct the following sentences:Answer:
- Her actions make my blood boil.
- They are counting on me playing in their team.
- He is thinking of writing his autobiography.
- I am hoping to secure full marks in the Mathematics paper.
- We were prevented from entering the classroom.
- You had better send your application by fax.
F4. A student has written a letter to Sagarika Sen asking for advice. Complete the letter using appropriate non-finites (- ing, - ed, and to +verb form)
- to give
- go away/ drive away
F.5 Here is the advice that Sagarika Sen has given to Som Shankar. Complete the letter using non-finites:
- to let/ask/to permit
- to be disturbed/to be poked
- coming and staying
- scolded/lambasted/called down
- to spend time