Tuesday, June 19, 2012

CBSE Class 10 - English (Comm.) Workbook - Unit 8 - Comparison

 

(Comparative Advertising: Old classic Surf Lalitaji advertisement)
Comparatives are the life line of Advertisement!

Unit 8 - COMPARISON


A.2 Write your conclusions here (a few based on table given in section A2 in the book)

AdjectiveComparative form           Superlative form
Single syllable adjectives
Tall
Bright
tall(er)
bright(er)
tall(est)
brighter(est)
Adjectives of two syllables sim·ple        
ha+ppy
simple(r)
happi(er)
busi(er)
happi(est)
busi(est)
Adjectives ending in 'y'
happy
busy
happi(er)
busi(er)
happi(est)
busi(est)
Adjectives of more than
two syllables

beau·ti·ful
dan·ger·ous
more beautiful
more dangerous
most beautiful
most dangerous
Adjectives that do not have
regular forms

good
well
better
worse
worst
worst
(To understand syllable, refer to a dictionary e.g. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/simple)



Now write six comparative sentences. Use the information in Table A.1 that you worked out with your partner.

Example: My partner is taller than me.
His family isn't as rich as mine.

Answer:

1. Shyama is happier today than she was yesterday.
2. Rihana is more beautiful than any girl in the class.
3. Mohan is as busy as Sohan is today.
4. I am taller than the rest of the class. (means I am the tallest in the class.)
5. Somalia is among the top ten the most dangerous cities across the world.
6. Among all the players in our team, Raju is the worst.

A.4 Read this feature article in which the writer compares the treatment of boys and girls. Complete the article by filling in the spaces with ONE appropriate word from the box given below. You may have to change the form of the word you need to use and some words may have to be used more than once.

            than      much          few           less             as                many

Answer:

For many parents, especially those who are poor and illiterate, a girl is a 'lesser child'. Doesn't it make you mad to know that girls aren't given an equal chance to be born? Though female infanticide was banned by law over a century ago, thousands of girls are killed before they are born or when they are babies.

Even the girls who are allowed to survive live with less of everything. _Fewer__ girls are sent to school _than_ boys. They get _less__medical care, so _more__ girls die. Boys get__more___ nutritious food and also _more_ time to play. _Few__ jobs are open to girls, and even if  they are employed, they are not paid__as much_ as boys. Most of all, they get _less___ respect. They are not given as _many_ opportunities as boys to speak out on matters that concern them.

And yet a girl usually does twice as _much_ work __as_ a boy, not only in the house but also in the fields.

This discrimination and bias must end, and end now! Can we count on your support?

A.6 Compare the two rockets shown below and complete the paragraph which follows.


    Helios                    Selene
Height   20 metres   25 metres         
Weight   15 tonnes   18 tonnes
Diameter   1 metre   1 metre
Date of first launch                     1993   1991
Payload capacity   1 tonne   1.1 tonne
Range   3000 kms   2300 kms

Answer:

The Selene, first launched in 1991, is five metres _taller__ (height) and three tonnes. _heavier__ (weight) _than_ the Helios. The diameter of the Helios is _as same as _ the Selene. However, the payload capacity of the Helios is 1 tonne, which is 0.1 tonne _less than_ the Selene. Interestingly, the Helios has a range of 3000 km, which is 700 km _longer than /wider than /more than__ the Selene.


A.8. Compare the items in each picture using -er, more, less or an irregular form. Use the words under the pictures. You may write your answer in Example : Ice-cream tastes better than yoghurt,

Answer:

1. healthy, nutritious, fattening
⇒ Fruits are more nutritious, healthier and less fattening than burgers.


2. cheap, effective, good
⇒ Soap is cheaper than shampoo. Soap is better than shampoo. Soap is less effective than shampoo.

3. economical, safer, eco-friendly
⇒  Cycle is more economical, safer and more eco-friendly than a motorcycle.

4. good, quick, safe
⇒ E-mail is better, quicker and safer than a postal letter.

5. informative, entertaining, popular
⇒ TV is more informative, more entertaining and more popular than a radio.

6. convenient, spacious, private
⇒ Apartments are more convenient, less spacious and less private than a single house.

7. useful, easy, handy, versatile
⇒ A swiss knife is more useful, easier, more handy and more versatile than a simple knife.

8. crowded, polluted, noisy
⇒ A city life is more crowded, more polluted and noisier than a country side.

9. fast, expensive, comfortable
⇒ Air travel is faster, more expensive and more comfortable than a rail journey.

10. quick, hygienic, nutritious
⇒ Cooking food in a cooker is quicker, more hygienic and more nutritious than cooking in an uncovered utensil.

11. safe, comfortable, fast
⇒ A rail journey is safer, more comfortable and faster than a bus trip.

A.9 Complete the following paragraph by filling in the blanks with the comparative form of words given in the box below:

          expensive              cheap               good                  costly                 low


Answer:

Goods this year are_ costlier than __ last year, and next year things may be _more expensive than_____ they are now.

Here are some suggestions for saving money! Compare the prices of similar products. Some brands are_cheaper than_ others, but the quality may not be much _better_.

Before you go shopping make a list of the items that you need and buy only those things! Don't buy things that you don't need just because they are _lower than _ the usual price, and don't buy anything just to 'keep up' with your neighbours.


B Avoiding Repetition
B.1 The comparisons below involve some unnecessary repetition. Cross out any unnecessary words, to avoid repetition.

Answer:

1. Today, Asia has far less forest cover than Asia had in the past.
2. The questions in the Physics test weren't as easy as the questions in the Maths test.
3. The population of India is rising more quickly than the population of China.
4. Children were reading more in 1990 than they are reading now.
5. Children now spend far more time watching TV than they spend reading books.

B.3 What does this proverb mean?
The higher you climb, the harder you fall.
Match the clauses from column A with those in column B to form meaningful sentences.

AB
1. The longer a candle burns,    a) the shorter it becomes.
2. The lower the sun is,   b) the higher it sounds.
3. The faster a guitar string vibrates          c) the less oxygen there is.
4. The smoother an object is,  d) the redder it appears.
5. The higher we climb,  e) the less friction it creates.             

Answer: 1-(a)       2-(d)       3-(b)    4-(e)    5-(c)


B.4 Now complete the sentences below

Answer:

1. The harder I work, the luckier I get.

2. The Older you become, the more death you see.
    The Older you become, the wiser you are.

3. The more he earns, the more he spends.

4. The sooner she realizes her mistake, the better it is.

5. The faster our team scores, the closer they are to victory.

C.2 The graph below describes the average number of hours spent by students aged 11-15 years on two activities (per student per week) in India between 1985 and 2010 and gives projections for 2015. Study the information carefully and then write a paragraph interpreting the data. Include the following:

  • A comparison of the trends in the two activities
  • A comparison of the situation in 1985
  • A comparison of the situation between 1985 and 2010
  • Predictions for the future


Answer:
The graph tells that students of India aged between 11-15 years are spending more time in watching TV than reading for pleasure. Since 1985, the average reading hours has gone more towards south while the average hours spent on TV has increased sharply. In 1985 when there was hardly any hour spent on TV, the average reading hours were the highest i.e. 14 hours. In 2010, the figure of the students who read regularly has declined to less than half of 1985 figure. While the figure of TV watchers for the same year, has increased 11 times since 1985. If the trend continues, it is expected by 2015 students will spend almost 15 hours on average watching TV while the average reading hours will be as low to four hours.

D.  Proportion
D.2 A school carried out two surveys in Class X. Look at the pie charts below and write short summaries of the results as in the model above.


Answer: As it can be seen from the above pie-chart, a majority of Class X students are in favour of either banning or restricting TV advertisements. Only one fifth wants no restrictions on TV commercials, while one third participants prefer the frequency of commercial breaks be checked. Nearly one fourth would like commercials targetting on children be not allowed. On the other hand less than of one fifth fraction wants them to be aired after 9pm. Although a vast majority are in favour of advertisement in one or another manner but a very small fraction wants these advertisements be banned completely.

The above pie-chart depicts an interesting statistics. Interestingly almost half of the participants think teenagers in their early teens (i.e. 12-15 years of age) should be considered independent.  While nearly one third think age between 15-17 is right to become independent. On the other hand a small fraction thinks 18 years age is the right one and almost similar fraction thinks it age of 21 years be considered to be independent.


E. Superlatives
E.1 Study the following sentences

Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa.
The Pacific is the deepest of all the oceans in the world.
The Nile is the longest river in the world.

Now make similar sentences about the following. Use your general knowledge and imagination.

1. Diamonds are the most popular gemstones in the world.
2. The Himalayas are the most sacred mountain ranges in the world.
3. The Ganga is the most scared river of India.
4. Leh is the most beautiful monastery in Ladhak.
5. The Taj Mahal is the most beautiful monument in the world.
6. Kolkata is the most polluted metropolitan city in the country.
7. Jupiter is the largest planet of the solar system.
8. The elephant is the most tame and gentle among wild animals.
9. Mt Everest is the highest peak in the world.
10.Russia is the biggest country in the world.

E.2 Which of the following do you like best? Write one or two sentences comparing your choice as shown in the example.

Comics, short stories, novels
I like comics best because they have the most colourful pictures. They are also the funniest.
I like short stories best because they don't take much time to read.
I like novels best because they make the most interesting reading.

Answer:

1. Cricket, football, hockey
Football is more popular than hockey in West Bengal.
Among cricket, football and hockey I like football the most.


2. Fruit, chocolate, ice-cream
I like fruit more than chocolate and ice-cream.
Chocolate with ice-cream deserts are the ones that I like the most.

3. Theatre, TV, Cinema
I like theatre because it provides more versatile platform for acting than TV and Cinema.
I like theatre, TV and Cinema because they are the best ways to engage and inspire change.

4. Cartoon films, Sci-fi (Science Fiction) films, comedy films
I like Cartoon films, Sci-fi (Science Fiction) films and comedy films because they are the most entertaining. Cartoons and Sci-fis have the most stunning visual effects.

5. (Think of three items of your own)
I like Physics and Maths the most because they helped my logic abilities.
I like reading English poems best because they are succinct.

F Error Correction
Each sentence below contains an error. Identify and remove the error and rewrite the sentence correctly. You have been given one example.


*The population of China is greater than India.
The population of China is greater than that of India.
(Explanation: China's population is not greater than India, but India's population).

Answer:

1. *Saeed runs quicker than Johnson.
      Saeed runs faster than Johnson.

2. *The faster land animal in the world is the cheetah.
      The fastest land animal in the world is the cheetah.

3. *Our house is bigger than your.
      Our house is bigger than yours.

4. *On an average, people in cities earn more money than that living in villages.
      On an average, people in cities earn more money than those living in villages.

5. *His grade is the same than mine.
      His grade is the same as mine.

6. *Ranvir is slightly taller as Javed.
      Ranvir is slightly taller than Javed.


7. *Developed countries consume twice more resources as developing countries.
      Developed countries consume twice resources than developing countries.
      Developed countries consume twice as much resources as developing countries.

8. *The clock tower is most prominent landmark in this area.
      The clock tower is the most prominent landmark in this area.


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