Electric Current and its Effects
Q1: Draw in your notebook the symbols to represent the following components of electrical circuits: connecting wires, switch in the ‘OFF’ position, bulb, cell, switch in the ‘ON’ position, and battery.
Q2: Draw the circuit diagram to represent the circuit shown in Fig. below.
Answer: The circuit diagram is showing switch in OFF position:
Q3: Fig.below shows four cells fixed on a board. Draw lines to indicate how you will connect their terminals with wires to make a battery of four cells.
Answer: To obtain maximum voltage, cells are connected in series i.e. negative(-) end of one cell is connected to positive (+) end of another cell and so on.
Q4: The bulb in the circuit shown in Fig.14.23 does not glow. Can you identify the problem? Make necessary changes in the circuit to make the bulb glow.
Answer: In the circuit, cells are not connected properly i.e. (+ve) terminal is connected to +ve terminal of another cell. To make the connection closed, the negative terminal of first cell be connected to positive terminal of second cell, as shown below.
Q5: Name any two effects of electric current.
- Heating Effect of current: When an electric current passes through a wire, the wire gets heated. This is known as the heating effect of current. It is used in many applications like electric heater, electric ion, light bulb etc.
- Magnetic Effect of current: When an electric current flows through a wire, it produces magnetic effect around it. This effect is called magnetic effect of current. If the current carrying wire is wrapped around a piece of iron, the iron piece acts as an electromagnet. Magnetic Effect of electric current has many applications like power lift, electric bell, electric fan etc.
Answer: The current carrying wire produces magnetic effect around it. It causes deflection of magnetic needle. When the current is switched off, there is no magnetic field produced by the wire, magnetic needle does not deflect from its north-south position.
Q7: Will the compass needle show deflection when the switch in the circuit shown by Fig. (below) is closed?
Answer: No the compass needle will not show deflection even though the switch is closed, because there is no source of electric current. An electric cell or battery needs to be connected here. In the absence of electric current, there is no magnetic field produced by the wires. Hence there is no deflection.
Q8: Fill in the blanks:
(a) Longer line in the symbol for a cell represents its positive terminal.
(b) The combination of two or more cells is called a battery.
(c) When current is switched ‘on’ in a room heater, it becomes hot due to heating effect of electric current.
(d) The safety device based on the heating effect of electric current is called a fuse.
Q9: Mark ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if it is false:
(a) To make a battery of two cells, the negative terminal of one cell is connected to the negative terminal of the other cell. (F)✗
(b) When the electric current through the fuse exceeds a certain limit, the fuse wire melts and breaks.(T)✓
(c) An electromagnet does not attract a piece of iron. (F)✗
(d) An electric bell has an electromagnet. (T)✓
Q10: Do you think an electromagnet can be used for separating plastic bags from a garbage heap? Explain
Answer: An electromagnet acts like an ordinary magnet and it can attract iron pieces only. Plastic does not have any magnetic property. Electromagnet cannot be used to separate plastic bags from garbage heap.
Q11: An electrician is carrying out some repairs in your house. He wants to replace a fuse by a piece of wire. Would you agree? Give reasons for your response.
Answer: Fuses are devices that safeguard our electrical appliances, wiring. They are made up of special material which melt quickly and break when large electric currents are passed through them.
If the electrician does not use proper fuse wire, instead he uses any ordinary electric wire as fuse, it increases the risk of overheating of wires due to flow of excessive current. It may lead to short circuit in electric equipments and these appliances may catch fire. It is advised to use standard fuse wire or MCBs carrying ISI mark.
Q12: Zubeda made an electric circuit using a cell holder shown in Fig., a switch and a bulb. When she put the switch in the ‘ON’ position, the bulb did not glow. Help Zubeda in identifying the possible defects in the circuit.
Answer: Following can be the possible reasons:
1. The bulb may be fused due to broken element.
2. Cells are not connected properly i.e. +ve terminal of first cell should connect to -ve terminal of the second one.
3. There may be loose connections. e.g. wire is not connected properly to switch or to the bulb.
4. The switch is not functioning well.
5. The cells are dried up. The power of the cell i.e. chemical inside the cell which produces electric current has been exhausted.
Q13:In the circuit shown below
(i) Would any of the bulb glow when the switch is in the ‘OFF’ position?
(ii) What will be the order in which the bulbs A, B and C will glow when the switch is moved to the ‘ON’ position?
(i) None of the bulb will glow when the witch is in the OFF position, since the electric circuit is not closed.
(ii) When the switch is moved to 'ON' position, circuit is complete and electric current will flow immediately. All of the bulbs will glow instantly.
Q14: Why CFL is considered better than filament based electric bulb?
Answer: In comparison to electric bulb, CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) produces very less amount of heat energy and thus reduces the energy wastage. That's why CFL are more environment friendly and are considered better alternative to electric bulbs.
Q15: What are MCBs?
Answer: MCBs or Miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) are electric safety devices being used in place of fuses. These are kind of switches which turns off (breaks electric circuit) automatically when excessive current flows due to short circuit.
Q16: Name the scientist who discovered magnetic effect of the current.
Answer: Hans Christian Oersted was the first person who noticed the deflection of compass needle every time, when the current was passed through the wire.
Q17: What are the reasons for excessive current flowing through a circuit?
- Short circuit: Due to faulty insulation or overheating, live wire comes in contact with neutral wire.
- Overloading: Many electric devices are connected beyond the capacity of electric circuit.
Q18: Name the material used as heating element in an electric iron.
Q19: Name the element used as filament in electric bulb.
Q20: What is a circuit diagram?
Answer: The representation of electric circuit by using electric symbols instead of electric components images is called circuit diagram.
Q21: What are the factors of conducting wire on which amount of heat produced depends?
Answer: Length, thickness and nature of material.
- With increase in length of wire, increases the amount of heat produced.
- With increase in thickness of wire, less amount of heat is produced.
- Good conductors produce less amount of heat while bad conductors (e.g. Nichrome) produce more heat
Answer: Ampere (A)
Q23: Name the instrument used to measure electric current.
Q24: How does electric cell produce current?
Answer: An electric cell stores some chemicals and their chemical energy gets converted to electrical energy.
Q25(MCQ): The unit to measure electric resistance is:
Answer: (b) Ohm
Q26(MCQ): The device used to make or break an electric circuit is :
Answer: (c) Switch
Q27: What is vampire power?
Answer: Many times the appliances like TV, air-conditioners or computers are switched off using remote sets instead of mechanical switches. Instruments like mobiles can be kept with plug connected even after complete charging. In these cases, appliances use the power and there is a waste of electric energy. That is known as vampire power or standby power.