(Q & A)
Q1: What is Indo-China?
Answer: The region in South East Asia comprising three countries: Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.
Q2: What is the scholars revolt of 1868?
Answer: The scholars revolt of 1869 was an early revolt against French control and against the spread of Christianity. It was led by angry officials at the imperial court. They organised an uprising in NguAn and HoTien provinces and killed over a thousand catholics.
Q3: What was Syncretic tradition?
Answer: Traditions and beliefs which aim to bring together unity and reconcile different beliefs and practices on the basis of this essential unity. Syncretic traditions were shaped among Vietnam peasantry which combined Buddhism and local beliefs.
Q4: How Early Vietnam was influenced by China?
Answer: Even after independence, Vietnam continued to be under influenced of Chinese empire:
- Vietnam followed Chinese culture and practices followed by Chinese government.
- Chinese based education system was adopted.
- Confucianism - an old Chinese religion was practised by a many Vietnamese followers.
- Vietnam was connected to Maritime silk route.
Q5: Which city of Vietnam was rebuilt by the French?
Answer: The city of Hanoi was rebuilt by reconstruction architecturally.
Q6: Why was France interested in setting up a colony in Vietnam?
Answer: France like other European countries thought colonies were necessary for the following reasons:
- Countries like Vietnam were rich in natural resources and could supply essential goods and raw materials to France.
- Colonies were considered markets for the finished products made in France.
- Like other Western countries, France also believed in bringing benefits of civilization to backward people of Vietnam and other colonies.
Q7: How did French develop Vietnam? What was the main objective of French government in developing Vietnam?
Answer: France initiated following development projects in Vietnam:
- They built irrigation canals. Mekong delta was drained out to promote rice cultivation.
- They built roads and railways lines e.g. Trans Indo-China railway route.
- They introduced rubber plantation.
- Land reforms were initiated.
- Modern education was introduced.
Q8: What were Paul Bernard views to develop Vietnam as French colony?
ORQ(CBSE): Why did the French policy-makers want to educate the people of Vietnam? Explain.
Answer: Paul Bernard asked Fraench government to develop Vietnam for the following reasons:
- According to him, colonies were acquired to make profits.
- If colonies were developed, it would improve the standard of living of the people living there.
- People would demand more foreign goods. It would help France gain more profits by selling more goods at Vietnam.
Q9: What were the two connected themes of the book - "The history of the loss of Vietnam"?
Answer: The themes were:
- the loss of sovereignty
- the severing of ties with China.
Q10: How did the development in China improve Vietnamese nationalists?
Answer: In 1911, the long established monarchy in China was overthrown by a popular movement under Sun-Yat-sen and a republic was set. Inspired by these developments and outcomes of Chinese movement, the Vietnamese students organised an association for restoration of Vietnam.
Q11: What was the impact of Great Depression of 1930s on Vietnam?
Answer: The Great depresion of 1930s had a profound impact on Vietnam.
- The prices of rubber and rice fell sharply which affected the farmers badly.
- Earning from exports decreased sharply. It led to an increase in rural debts.
- Unemployment and rural uprisings spread e.g. as in the provinces of NghAn and Ha Tinh
Q12: Which provinces of Vietnam were known as 'Electrical Fuses' and why?
Answer: Nghe An and Ha Tien were the provinces. They were called 'Electrical Fuses' as they were among the poorest, had an old radical tradition when the system was under pressure they were the
first to blow.
Q13: What was the immediate outcome of the Geneva Peace negotiations on Vietnam?
Answer: The Geneva Peace negotiation was followed by by the French defeat. Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and South were split. Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the south.
Q14: What is NLF?
Answer: NLF stands for NAtional Liberation Front. The people of South Vietnam organised themselves in the NLF to oppose the dictatorial rule of the Ngo Din Dieu with the help of Ho Chi Min government if the North. NLF fought for the unification of the country.
Q15: Why did USA decide to intervene in Vietnam?
Answer: The policy makers of US government had fear that the victory of Ho Chin government in Vietnam would boost communism in South Asian countries. It would have 'domino effect' and other South Asia countries would turn into communists. Worried about communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.
Q16: What was the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam?
- Scholars Movement: An early movement against the spread of Christianity and french control was the Scholar;s revolt of 1868. It was led by the officials of the imperial court who were angered by the spread of Catholic French Power. The revolt was led by a general uprising in NguAn and Ha Tien provinces where over thousand Catholics were killed.Vietnamese organizers of this movement were angry because nearly 300,000 Vietnamese were converted to Christianity from 17th to 18th century by the French colonial government. Although the revolt was crushed but it has profound impact on Vietnamese and inspired patriotism against French domination.
- Hoa Hao Movement: Another movement called Hoa Hao movement began in 1939 in the fertile Nekong Delta area. It gained popular religious ideas in Anti-French uprising of 19th century. Hoa Hao movement was started by Huynh Phu So who performed miracles and helped the poor. He criticized against useless expenditure and opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium. declared him mad, called him the Mad Bonze,
and put him in a mental asylum. Interestingly, the doctor who had to prove him insane became his follower, and finally in 1941, even the French doctors declared that he was sane. The French authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps