NCERT Chapter Solutions
Q1: Who was considered a “foreigner” in the past?
Answer: In past (medieval period), foreigner is referred to any person who was not a part of the same society or culture. For example, a city-dweller might regard a forest-dweller as foreigner. But two peasants living in the same village were not foreigners to each other even though they belong to different caste or religious backgrounds.
Q2: State whether true or false:
(a) We do not find inscriptions for the period after 700.
(b) The Marathas asserted their political importance during this period.
(c) Forest-dwellers were sometimes pushed out of their lands with the spread of agricultural settlements.
(d) Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban controlled Assam, Manipur and Kashmir.
Q3: Fill in the blanks:(a) Archives are places where ____________ are kept.
(b) _______________ was a fourteenth-century chronicler.
(c) , , , ______ and ________ were some of the new crops introduced into the subcontinent during this period.
(a) Archives are places where manuscripts are kept.
(b) Amir Khusrao was a fourteenth-century chronicler.
(c) Potatoes, corn, chillies, and coffee were some of the new crops introduced into the subcontinent during this period.
Q4: List some technological changes associated with this period.
Answer: In the thousand years between 700 to 1750, there occurred large variety of technological changes impacting social, economical, political and cultural changes. Prominent technological developments were:
- Persian wheel in irrigation.
- Spinning wheel in weaving
- Firearms in combat.
- New food and beverages like potatoes, corn, chillies, tea and coffee.
Answer: In the thousand years history, it witnessed major developments in religious traditions.
- The religious belief in supernatural agency was collective among people and it was often connected with the social and economic organization of local communities.
- In Hinduism, it lead to worshiping new deities, construction of new temples by the kings.
- Brhamins gained importance and became dominant group in the society because of their knowledge of Sanskrit language and role playing as priests in religious activities.
- Later one of the major development was the emergence of the idea of Bhakti or Sufism i.e. devotees can pray their personal deities by sermons without the aid of priests or elaborate rituals.
- In this period, new religions also appeared in the subcontinent. E.g. during seventh century merchants and migrants brought the teachings of Islam. Later many rulers (Sultanate of Delhi and Mughals) became patrons of Islam. Like Hinduism, Islam was interpreted by in variety of ways by its followers.
Answer: The time the meaning of the term ''Hindustan" changed number of times over the centuries:
- Presently, the term ''Hindustan" is understood by ''India", the modern nation state.
- During 13th century writer Minhaj-i-Siraj, used the term ''Hindustan" in political context to denote kingdom areas of Punjab, Haryana and the lands between Ganga and Yamuna (Uttar Pradesh).
- In 16th century, Babur and Amir Khusro used the term "Hindustan'' to describe the geography, the fauna (animals) and the culture of the inhabitants of the sub-continent.
Q7: How were the affairs of jatis regulated?
Answer: Jatis framed their own rules and regulations to manage the conduct of their members. These regulations were enforced by an assembly of elders( called jati panchayat in some areas). Several villages were governed by a chieftain. Together they were only one small unit of a state.
Q8: What does the term pan-regional empire mean?
Answer:The empire which spreads across many regions of diverse culture, religion and geography is called pan-regional empire. Cholas, Khaljis, Tughluqs and Mughals were pan-regional empires.
Concept Map about Medieval Period Indian History
Q9: What are the difficulties historians face in using manuscripts?
Answer: Following difficulties generally historians face while using manuscripts:
- Poor Handwriting: Manuscripts were mostly hand written. Illegible handwriting introduce errors while copying these scripts.
- Different Interpretations: illegible writings force historians to take guess which may not be accurate.
- Copying Errors: Scribes while copying introduce small errors which grew over the centuries.
- Different versions of Manuscripts may lead to confusion. It becomes a challenge to decide the chronological order of their releases.
Q10: Give examples of forts built during Medieval period.
- Lal Quila (Red Fort at Delhi)
- Red Fort at Agra
- Gwaliar Fort
- Amer Fort (Jaipur)
- Jama Masjid (Delhi)
- Moti Masjid (Agra)
- Meenakshi Temple (Madurai)
- Khujrao Temples
- Dilwara Temples (Mt. Abu)
Q13: List any two pillars built during Medieval period.
- Qutub Minar (Delhi)
- Charminar (Hyderabad)
- Vijay Pillar (Chittorgarh)
Q 14: List names of tombs built during Medieval period.
Answer: Taj Mahal (Agra), Humanyun Tomb (Delhi)