Wednesday, June 13, 2012

CBSE - Class X - Science - Ch7 - Control and Coordination

Human Brain

MCQs, NCERT Chapter Solutions, Q & A

Q1: The plant hormone which is essential for cell division is
(a) Ethylene
(b) Auxin
(c) Gibberellin
(d) Cytokinin

Answer:  (d) Cytokinin

Q2:  The activities of the internal organs are controlled by the
(a) Central Nervous System
(b) Peripheral Nervous System
(c) Autonomic Nervous System
(d) None of these

Answer: (c) Autonomic Nervous System

Q3: The seat of intelligence and voluntary action in the brain is
(a) Diencephalon
(b) Cerebrum
(c) Cerebellum
(d) Medulla Oblongata

Answer: (b) Cerebrum

Q4: The gap between two neurons is known as ___.
(a) synapse
(b) synopsis
(c) impulse
(d) synaptic node

Answer: (a) synapse

Q5: Which of the following is a plant hormone?
(a) Thyroxin
(b) Cytokinin
(c) Insulin
(d) Oestrogen

Answer: (b) Cytokinin

Q6: Tropic movements are
(a) in response to light
(b) in response to gravity
(c) uni-directional
(d) non-directional

Answer: (c)  uni-directional

Q7: Artifical ripening of fruit is carried out by 
(a) Auxins
(b) Ethylene
(c) Abscisic acid (ABA)
(d) Gibberellins

Answer:  (b) Ethylene

Q8: Part of brain that controls respiration, heartbeat and peristalsis is ____.
(a) Cerebrum
(b) Cerebellum
(c) Pons
(d) Medulla

Answer: (d) Medulla

Q9: The brain is responsible for
(a) thinking.
(b) regulating the heart beat.
(c) balancing the body.
(d) all of the above.

Answer: (d) All of the above.

Q10: Which of the following hormone is released by thyroid?
(a) Insulin
(b) Thyroxin
(c)  Trypsin
(d) Pepsin

Answer: (b) Thyroxin

Q11: Which body organ is surrounded by meninges?
(a) Heart and Lungs
(b) Brain & Heart
(c) Brain and Spinal Cord
(d) Spinal Cord and Lungs

Answer:  (c) Brain and Spinal Cord

Q12: Part of brain that controls muscular co-ordination is ____.
(a) Cerebrum
(b) Cerebellum
(c) Pons
(d) Medulla

Answer: (b) Cerebellum

Q13: Growth of the stem is controlled by
(a) gibberellin
(b) auxin
(c) abscisic acid
(d) cytokinin

Answer: (a) gibberellin

Q14: Wilting of leaves is caused by which hormone?
(a) gibberellin
(b) auxin
(c) abscisic acid
(d) cytokinin

Answer: (c) abscisic acid

Q15: Which of the following hormones contains iodine? 
(a) adrenaline
(b) testosterone
(c) thyroxine
(d) insulin

Answer: (c) thyroxine

Q16: Which part of brain controls  the posture and balance of the body?
(a) Cerebrum
(b) Cerebellum
(c) Pons
(d) Medulla

Answer: (b) Cerebellum

Q17: What is the difference between a reflex action and walking?


Reflex ActionWalking
A reflex action is an automatic and rapid (spontaneous) response to a stimulus.Walking is a voluntary action.
It is a spontaneous reaction. Spinal cord is involved in it.It is a conscious and deliberate action i.e. it is done after a thought is processed by the brain.
It does not involve any kind of thinking or feeling to control the reaction.It is the voluntary action that we have acquired through learning
Spinal cord is directly involved in it. It is directly controlled by hind-brain (cerebellum).
When a bright light is focussed on your eyes, we immediately close it, a knee-jerk are examples of reflex action. Examples: Walking in a straight line, riding a bicycle, picking up a pencil (Voluntary actions and precision control)

Q18: Why is a system of control and coordination essential in living organisms?

Answer: Following are the reasons:
  1. Increase the chances of survival by responding to stimuli.
  2. Different body parts function as a single unit 
  3. To maintain homeostasis.
Q19: Fill in the blanks.

(a) _____ is the is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
(b) An automatic response to a stimulus which is not controlled by the brain is called ______.
(c) Chemical messengers which control and coordinate in plants and animals are called _____.
(d) The movement of a plant part in the direction of light is called ____.
(e) ________ is the movement of plant part in response to the availability of water.
(f) ________ is the movement of plant part in response to the pull of earth’s gravity
(g) The movement of plant part in response to certain chemicals is called ______.
(h) _________ is the reflex centre of the brain.
(i) __________ is a structure associated with both nervous system and endocrine system.

(a) Neuron or Nerve cell
(b) Reflex Action
(c) Hormones
(d) Phototropism
(e) Hydrotropism
(f) Geotropism
(g) Chemotropism
(h) Medulla Oblongata
(i) Hypothalmus

Q20: What happens at the synapse between two neurons?

Answer:  Synapse is a very small gap between the last portion of axon of one neuron and the dendron of the other neuron.  It acts as a one way valve to transmit impulses. This is one directional flow of impulses because the chemicals are produced only on one side of the neuron i.e., the axon’s side. Via axon, the impulses travel across the synapse to the dendron of the other neuron.

In toto, synapse performs the following tasks:
  1. It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another.
  2. It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.
  3. It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received.
Watch the you tube video explaining what is the Synapse structure and  how it functions.

Q21: Which part of the brain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body?

Answer: Cerebellum.

Q22: How do we detect the smell of an agarbatti (incense stick)?

Answer: The fore-brain is the main thinking part of the brain. It has regions which receive sensory impulses from various receptors. Separate areas of the fore-brain are specialised for hearing, smell, sight and so on.
Olfactoreceptors (present in nose) send the information about the smell of incense stick to fore-brain. The for-brain interprets it along with with information received from other receptors as well as with information that is already stored in the brain.

Q23: List the functions performed by Cerebrum.

Answer: The cerebrum performs the following functions:
  1. It governs our mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, learning, memorising etc.
  2. It controls our feelings, emotions and speech.
  3. It controls all involuntary functions.
Q24: Which is the largest and most prominent part of the brain.

Answer: Cerebrum

Three regions of Brain

Q25: What are the functions of cerebellum?

  1. Maintains equilibrium or balance of the body.
  2. Coordinates muscular movement.
  3. Controls posture of the body.

Q26: How brain is protected inside a human body?

Answer: Brain is protected by a bony box called cranium, within which are present 3 layers of fluid-filled (called cerebrospinal fluid) membranes (called meninges) for absorbing shock and buoyancy.

Q27: What is the role of the brain in reflex action?

Answer: Brain has no role to play in creation of reflex action response. Instead spinal cord is the control centre of a reflex action. In fact brain becomes aware after the reflex arc has been formed.

Q28: What do you mean by reflex action? Give examples of reflex actions?

Answer: It is defined as fast, unconscious, immediate, automatic and involuntary response of the body (through effectors) to a stimulus. It is monitored through spinal cord.

Examples of reflex actions:
  1. Closing eyes when bright light falls on the eyes.
  2. Knee-jerk
  3. Withdraw Hands when pricked by a pin.
  4. Choking stimulates cough reflex
  5. Withdraw hand or leg when it touches an hot object.
  6. Women knitting a sweater while watching TV (conditioned reflex).
Q29: What are the different types of reflexes?

Answer: There are two types of reflexes:
  • Unconditioned reflexes
  • Conditioned reflexes
Unconditioned or Unconditional reflexes are those which are inherited. Our brain does not learn these reflexes. E.g. when we touch a hot plate, we immediately moves away our hand.

Conditioned reflexes are those which our brain has learned by repeating the action number of times. e.g. a typist is typing a letter without looking at the typewriter keys.

Q30: What is reflex arc?

Answer: The structural and functional unit that carries our reflex action is called a reflex arc. It consists of:
  • A receptor
  • sensory nerve (afferent)
  • Spinal Cord and Inter-neuron
  • motor nerve (efferent)
  • effector

Q31: What are plant hormones?

Answer: Plant hormones or phytohormones are naturally-occurring organic substances used as chemical coordinators in plants. These are synthesized in one part of the plant body (in minute quantities) and are translocated to other parts when required.
The five major types of phytohormones are:
  • auxins: promote cell division, bending of shoot towards the source of light.
  • gibberellins: stimulate stem elongation.
  • cytokinins: promote cell division.
  • abscisic acid: inhibit growth ,closing of stomata ,seed dormancy.
  • ethylene( gas hormone): promotes fruit ripening and growth.

Q32: Who coined the term phytohormones?

Answer: Thimann in 1948.

Q33: How is the movement of leaves of the sensitive plant different from the movement of a shoot towards light?

Answer: The movement of leaves of the sensitive plant, (e.g. Mimosa pudica or touch-me-not) occurs in response to touch or contact stimuli. It is a growth independent movement (nastic movement).

The movement of shoot towards light is called photo-tropism. This type of movement is directional and is growth dependent.

Q34: Write differences between nastic and tropic movements


Sno.Nastic MovementsTropic Movements
1. Growth    Growth Independent movements      Growth Dependent movements
2.Time of Action   ImmediateSlow
3. Response to Stimulusnon-directionaldirectional
4. Reason for actionchange in turgorcell division
5. Alternate namenasticstropism
6. Examplesfolding of leaves of
opening and closing of stomata
phototropism, geotropism,
hydrotropism, chemotropism

Q35: What will happen when plant is exposed to unidirectional light?

Answer: Stem bends towards unidirectional flow of light. It is called phototropism.

Q36(CBSE 2009): What is chemotropism?

Answer: Directional movement of a plant/ or its part in response to chemicals is called chemotropism. e.g. growth of the pollen tube towards the ovule is a chemotropic movement due to which fertilization of flower takers place.

Q37: Give examples of geotropism.

  1. Roots move in the direction of gravity (positive +ve getropism)
  2. Shoots move (up) against direction of gravity (negative -v geotropism)
Q38: Why do mammals like humans need an endocrinal system?
Q: What are the limitations of nervous system in human body? How it is overcome?

Answer: Nervous system in human body works or communicates using nerve impulses which are form of electrical impulses. Electrical impulses are an excellent means of communication in human body but they have following limitations:
  1. They reach only those cells that are connected by nervous tissue, not each and every cell
    in the animal body.
  2. Cells cannot continually create and transmit electrical impulses. once an electrical impulse is generated in a cell and transmitted, the cell will take some time to reset its mechanisms before it can generate and transmit a new impulse.
Due to above said limitations most multicellular organisms use another means of communication between cells, namely, chemical communication i.e. hormone or endocrine system. It is slower than nerve cells but potentially reach all cells of the body.

Q39(NCERT): How does chemical coordination take place in animals?

Answer:  Hormones act as chemical coordinators in animals. Hormone is the chemical messenger that regulates the physiological processes in living organisms. It is secreted by ductless glands into blood stream and reach their target site.

Q40: Who coined the term hormone?

Answer: Bayliss and Starling. Both of discovered the peptide hormone called secretin in human intestine.

Q41(CBSE 2010): What will happen if intake of iodine in our diet is low?
Q: Why is the use of iodised salt advised?

Answer: It is advised to used iodised salt to prevent goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland). Iodine is required for the proper functioning of thyroid. Iodine stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxin hormone. This hormone regulates carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in our body.

Q42(CBSE 2010): Name the hormone secreted by an endocrine gland during emergency? Name the gland which secretes this hormone. 

Answer: Adrenaline hormone is secreted by the adrenal glands. It helps to regulate heart beat, blood pressure, metabolism in the times of stress or emergency to cope up with the situation.

Q43: How does adrenaline affects heart during emergency?
Q(NCERT): How does our body respond when adrenaline is secreted into the blood?

Answer: During emergency situations, adrenaline hormone is released to blood stream in large quantities. It increases the heartbeat and hence supplies more oxygen to the muscles. The increase in breathing rate also increases due to contractions of diaphragm and rib muscles. It raises the blood pressure and thus enable the body to cope up with any stress or emergency.

Q44(CBSE 2010): Which hormone is injected to a diabetic patient and why?
Q(NCERT): Why are some patients of diabetes treated by giving injections of insulin?
Answer: Diabetes is a condition in which sugar level in blood is very high. Insulin hormone is released by pancreas glands which regulates the blood sugar level. In diabetic patients, pancreas has stopped releasing insulin hormone. If it is not secreted in proper amounts, the sugar level in the blood rises causing many harmful effects.  Due to  this reason diabetic patients are treated by giving injections of insulin.

Q45 (CBSE 2010):  How does our body maintain blood sugar level?

Answer: The timing and amount of hormone released are regulated by feedback mechanisms. When the sugar levels in blood rise, they are detected by the cells of the pancreas which respond by producing more insulin. As the blood sugar level falls, insulin secretion is reduced.

Q46: Where adrenal glands are located?

Answer: Adrenal glands are like caps just above the kidneys.

Q47: What is hyperglycemia?

Answer: Hyperglycemia refers to high sugar level in blood. In general diabetic patients has hyperglycemia due to insufficient release of insulin hormone.

Q48: Where thyroid gland is located?

Answer: Thyroid gland is situated in front of  the neck  below larynx.

Q49: Which endocrine gland is called master gland? Why?

Answer: Pituitary gland (pea shape, present in mid-brain) is considered as master endocrine gland. It is said so because it controls almost all other endocrine glands.

Q50: Why is pancreas a dual gland?

Answer: Pancreas is a dual gland because it acts as both endocrine and exocrine gland. As endocrine it secretes hormones like insulin, glucagen. As an exocrine glands, it releases enzymes like trypsin, lypase, amylase etc.

(In progress...)


  1. Thank you so much for such valuable information. .☺☺

  2. Thank you for the very useful and to the point information
    but the answer to the second question is wrong ..It is very obviously the autonomic nervous system which controls the internal organs ..Hope change is made soon

  3. thats some useful information uve got there

  4. Is it enough for the preparation for sa1? Plz answe

  5. When there is a sudden dust storm, we immediately close our eyes. This reaction is controlled by:
    (a) Cerebrum (b) Cerebellum (c) Medulla oblongata (d) Spinal cord. Anyone answer this question.

  6. When there is a sudden dust storm, we immediately close our eyes. This reaction is controlled by:
    (a) Cerebrum (b) Cerebellum (c) Medulla oblongata (d) Spinal cord. Anyone answer this question.