Sunday, July 22, 2012

CBSE Class 10 - English (Comm.) Workbook - AVOIDING REPETITION

Unit 9 - AVOIDING REPETITION

A. Notice the element of repetition in the following sentences and decide whether it is acceptable or not. Give reasons in support of your opinion.

Answer:
SentenceOpinion
1. Democracy is the government of the people, by the people, for the people. Its a famous quote, otherwise 'the people' is repeated.
(Acceptable)
2. "I want to scale Mt. Everest, I want to do scuba diving and I want to fly an aeroplane. Actually, I want to do a lot of things before I die."'I want' is repeated number of times.
(Not Acceptable)
3. New Delhi has many big, big malls.'big' is repeated.
(Only acceptable in spoken English)
4. In this article first I have tried to discuss the various causes of air pollution. Then I have tried to discuss the various effects of air-pollution and finally I have tried to discuss various ways to reduce the amount of air-pollution.

'I have tried' is repeated many a times.
(Not acceptable)
5. “I've failed."
“You've failed? I can't believe this!"
'You've' can be avoided.
(Acceptable)
6. The incident took place today at around 6 a.m. in the morning.'6 am' and 'morning' conveys same meaning.
(Not Acceptable)
7. Could you repeat that again, please?'repeat' and 'again' means the same thing.
(Not Acceptable)
8. I am very, very sorry.'very' is repeated
(Acceptable in spoken English)
9. I have planned a plan.verb 'planned' already conveys message.
(Not a good one).
10. When I heard that she was staying at the Hotel Park View, I decided to go to the Hotel Park View to meet her there.Repetition of 'Hotel Park View' can be avoided.
(Not acceptable)

B. Read the following passages that describe a Herbal Doctor Mr Ved Prakash Goel.
a. How many words have been used in each paragraph?
Answer:
A. __119_________
B. __83___________

b. Circle the words or phrases in paragraph B that replace words or phrases in paragraph A. Then join the corresponding circles with a line as shown in the example. 

Answer:


c. Which of the two paragraphs makes better reading? Why? (Discuss in pairs and write your answer below) 

Answer:  It is obvious paragraph B is more interesting to read. It is concise, by avoiding repetition of same words and replacing it with pronouns and substituting phrases with equivalent words, paragraph 'B' provides to the point information.

C. Read the passage below. Underline the words that have been used to avoid repetition. Mark the words that have not been replaced or deleted with '?'.

Answer:

It was yet another escapade of Gopi and Gargi into the forest. The two were
playing in the courtyard of the ruined castle when they heard strange sounds,
as if someone was ringing tiny bells in a temple. But there was none in the
vicinity. They knew it. Then who was making those sounds? Nothing of that
sort had happened during any of their earlier visits. Was the castle haunted?
Were there any ghosts in it? Suddenly, this thought had a vice like grip on their
minds. Naturally enough?, both were terrified? but neither wanted to admit it.
Presently? the sounds became louder and louder and the duo would have fled
had Gargi's sharp eyes not caught a glimpse of a herd of goats grazing behind
the thickets nearby. 'So, those are the ghosts!' said Gargi? and both burst into
laughter. They rushed to the spot to have a closer look and found that there
were thirteen goats in all and each had a tiny brass bell dangling from its neck.
Four goats? were black and the rest were brown.


D. Read Passage 1 below and then fill in the blanks in Passage 2 with one word each. You may choose words from the ones you underlined in the exercise C. Which makes a better reading-Passage 1 or Passage 2? Why?

Passage 1
Moina and Debi are students of class IX. Moina and Debi are great friends although Moina and Debi don't study at the same school. Moina has never played cricket and Debi has never played cricket too but Moina and Debi are crazy about cricket. So far Moina and Debi have together watched ten
international matches played by their country, India. Four of these matches were played in different foreign countries and six of these matches were played in their country, India. Surprisingly, India has lost no match where Moina and Debi were present in the stands. Moina claims that she is more passionate about the game of cricket than Debi. Debi says she is more passionate about the game than Moina.

Answer:

Passage 2Moina and Debi are students of class IX. They are great friends although they don't study at the same school. Neither has ever played any cricket but both are crazy about it. especially one day matches. So far the two/duo have watched 10 matches together, all involving India. Surprisingly, India has lost none of them. Four of these matches were played in different foreign countries and the rest/remaining in India. Each girl claims that she is more passionate about the game than the other.


E. Ratna and Rajshree are two sisters. Ratna teaches English in a college and her sister Rajshree works in a bank. Rajashree is younger than Ratna. Ratna and Rajshree wear their hair long. Ratna likes eating ice-cream while Rajshree likes eating pastries. Ratna is not interested in sports. Rajashree is also not interested in sports. Rajshree is married to Utlam. Utlam is an engineer. Ratna is married to Sujit. Sujit is a businessman. Ratna has a daughter and a son. Rajshree has a daughter and a son too.

Rewrite the passage above such that there is no unnecessary repetition in it.

Answer:
Ratna and Rajshri are two sisters. Ratna teaches English in a college, while her younger sister works in a bank. Both wear their hair long. Ratna likes eating ice-cream while her sister likes pastries. Both are not interested in sports. Rajshree is married to Utlam who is an engineer. Ratna is married to Sujit, a businessman. Both sisters have a son and a daughter.


G. Substitution
G.1 We often use pronouns to make links between sentences and to avoid repetition.


Read the following extract from the story The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

"Of course, everything is so difficult now, food so scarce and dear, we could not keep going unless we charged a fee. But every week, Lucia's brothers have made their payment." She added simply, "I do not know what they do, I do not ask. Work is scarce in Verona. But whatever it is, I know they do it well."

Work with your partner and answer these questions.

Answer:
1. In the first line 'everything' refers to?
Ans: 'everything' refers to things required daily.

2. The phrase 'their payment' (line 3) refers to?
Ans: It refers to Hospital Bills which Lucia's brothers have paid.

3. 'They' in the third line refers to?
Ans: Lucia's brothers.

4. The speaker says, 'I do not ask'. What does the speaker not ask? Whom?
Ans: The speaker does not ask to Lucia brothers how they earn money to pay bills.

5. 'Whatever it is.' (line 4)Here 'it' refers to?
Ans: 'it' refers to work/job done by Lucia brothers.

6. Who do the pronouns 'I' and 'She' refer to?
Ans: Narrator/Speaker.

G.2 Substitution in formal writing

Look at this piece of formal writing

The Deputy Commissioner and the Commissioner of Police were the Chief Guest and the Guest of Honour respectively. The former delivered the key note address and the latter gave away the prizes to the winners.

Complete the following table using information from the text above.
Answer:
The Deputy Commissioner= the Chief Guest

The Commissioner of Police= _the Guest of Honour_

The former=__The Deputy Commissioner_

The latter=_The Commissioner of Police

Study the use of the words underlined in the text.

a. Why are they used?
They are used to represent the Deputy  Commissioner and the Commissioner of Police. It avoids repetition of these nouns.

b. Why do you think they are not commonly used in spoken English?
In spoken English, it is difficult to co-relate persons referred as 'the former' or 'the latter'. Listeners can't go back and review what you said in the previous sentences.

Rewrite the following texts. Use the former, the latter, and respectively to avoid repetition.

1. Anand likes History and Joel likes Mathematics. It is interesting to note that Anand is the son of a Mathematics teacher while Joel's father is a teacher of History.

Anand and Joel like History and Mathematics respectively. It is interesting to note that the former is the son of Mathematics teacher while the latter's father teaches History.

2. Seema, the monitor of class IX and Ramesh, the monitor of class X were asked to meet the Principal before they went home.

Seema and Ramesh, the monitors of Class IX and class X respectively were asked to meet the Principal before they went home.

G.3 Other types of substitution
Study the following sentences

  • The Bunsen burner broke last week. So we ordered a new one.
    (One=Bunsen burner)
  • He eats a lot less than he once did.
    (Did=ate)
  • The mother asked the daughter to tidy her room and she did so.
    (Did so=tidied her bed room)
  • A: I don't think it'll rain tomorrow.
    B: I hope not
    (Not=that it will not rain tomorrow)
  • There are a number of books in the library. You should use some of these.
    (These=books)
  • Unconventional sources of energy are becoming popular. Such sources help us to preserve our environment.
    (Such= unconventional sources of energy)
  • 'Who ate all the rice?'
    'I did.'
    (Did= ate all the rice)
  • Govind was delighted with the exam results. So was Gafur.
    (So=delighted with the exam results)


G.4 Use any of the above types of substitution to improve the following sentences.

Answer:
1. Flendian Whalers killed more minkes in 2010 than they killed in 2000.
    Flendian Whalers killed more minkes in 2010 than in 2000.

2. The fishermen were condemned for catching so many small fish. They said they caught so many small fish because they had to earn a living.
 The fishermen who were condemned for catching so many small fish said they did so to earn a living.

3. The light racquet was ineffective but the heavy racquet was difficult to handle.
The light racquet was ineffective but the heavier one was difficult to handle.

4. The rains are very unpredictable in Shillong. We were advised to come prepared for rainy weather conditions.
The rains are very unpredictable in Shillong.We were advised to come prepared for the same.
or
The rains are very unpredictable in Shillong.We were advised to come prepared for such conditions.


5. Mr Chopra entertained the guests very well. Mrs Chopra also entertained the guests very well.
Both Mr. Chopra and Mrs Chopra entertained the guests very well.

6. What is lying outside in the garden?
It's one of the two umbrellas we bought yesterday. Didn't you see the umbrella in the lobby?
It's one of the two umbrellas we bought yesterday. Didn't you see it in the lobby?


7. A: "I won't stay away from school tomorrow."
    B: "I should hope you will not stay away from school tomorrow."

B: I definitely/certainly hope so!
     or 
B: I  hope you won't

G.5 Omission

Sometimes we can avoid repetition by omitting certain words and phrases. Which words or phrases have been left out in the following examples? Is the meaning in all of them clear in spite of the  omission?

Oil is not found in the north but copper is.
is = is found in the north
What has been omitted in the following sentences?

1. A: "Did she find out who had stolen her purse?"
    B: "No, she didn't."
    didn't = find out who had stolen her purse.

2. You take my book and I'll take Indu's when she gets back.
    Indu's = Indu's book.

3. If I don't get it to you tomorrow, I'll send it the day after.
    The day after = the day after tomorrow.

4. Firstly, add four grams, then another four, then another four until the mixture has solidified.
    Another four/ another= add another four grams

5. There were a number of graduates who were earning more than I was.
    was = was earning.

6. I think we need coaching more than they do.
    do = need coaching.

7. A: "I can tell you what I know."
    B: "You needn't. I'm not asking you to."
    needn't = needn't tell what you know.
    to = to tell me.

8. A: "Do you visit the doctor regularly?"
    B: "No, I can't afford to."
    to : visit the doctor regularly.

G.6 Complete the following conversation between two sisters with suitable substitute words.

Answer:

Mitali: Did you buy the dress you had seen in the shop?
Chetali: No, I didn't.

Mitali: But why? You liked  _it, didn't you?
Chetali: I had second thoughts about it. Well, I thought I would wear one of _yours_ instead. You have so many of them in your wardrobe.

Mitali: I do but_these/they_ are all designer dresses unlike the cheap stuff you wear and I am not going to let you touch _any_ of them. Do you understand?

Chetali: That's not fair!
Mitali: It_is_. Everyone should wear their own dresses. So you'd better go and buy that dress before someone else_does_.

H. (a) Match the sentences in A and B and write them together in the spaces below.

AB
1. Both Ajay and Sahir are good players.          a. Few reach their destination.
2. Thousands of baby turtles set out on
     the long journey.
b. Either would be suitable as a captain.
3. Some like to eat fish raw.c. Those who do have to study hard.
4. No one knows who did it.d. Others prefer it cooked.
5. Not many people get to university.e. It could be anyone.

Answer:
1. Both Ajay and Sahir are good players. Either would be suitable as a captain.
2. Thousands of baby turtles set out on the long journey. Few reach their destination.
3. Some like to eat fish raw. Others prefer it cooked.
4. No one knows who did it. It could be anyone.
5. Not many people get to university. Those who do have to study hard.

(b) Now underline the substitution word in each of the sentences written above and decide what each of the words refers to.

Answer:

Substitution WordWhat does it refer to?
1. Either           Both Ajay and Sahir
2. Few Baby turtles
3. it Raw fish
4. anyone who
5. do get to university


5 comments:

  1. for A (the first excercise) it is not given whether the statements are acceptable or not. pls do the neccesary.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Added. Still it is better to discuss these with your teachers because their views may differ. A Few are acceptable in Spoken English, lyrics, dramas etc.

      Delete
    2. This comment has been removed by the author.

      Delete
  2. please add the solution of unit 10th because u have only added 8th and 9th...

    ReplyDelete
  3. thank u its useful ,something is better than nothing!

    ReplyDelete