Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate
|Weather Applet on |
Can you identify weather icons?
Q1(NCERT): Name the elements that determine the weather of a place.
Answer: Following are the important elements that determine weather of a place:
- Air pressure
- Wind Speed
Q2: How do pressure and temperature influence weather pattern?
Answer: Higher temperatures cause air near the equator to expand and rise, that produces high winds and ocean currents. Similarly, pressure difference between warm and cold air causes air to flow from high pressure region to low pressure region. It leads to production of high winds.
Q3(NCERT): When are the maximum and minimum temperature likely to occur during the day?
Answer:The maximum temperature of the day occurs generally in the afternoon while the minimum temperature occurs generally in the early morning.
Q4: What is humidity? What is the instrument used to measure it?
Answer: Humidity is a measure of the moisture in air. Hygrometer is used to measure humidity.
Q5: Define Weather.
Answer: The day-to-day condition of the atmosphere at a place with respect to the temperature, humidity, rainfall, windspeed, etc., is called the weather at that place.
Q6(NCERT): Fill in the blanks:
(i) The average weather taken over a long time is called _climate of the place__.
(ii) A place receives very little rainfall and the temperature is high throughout the year, the climate of that place will be _hot___ and _dry___ .
(iii) The two regions of the earth with extreme climatic conditions are _tropical__ and_polar region_____.
(iv) The weather reports are prepared by the _Meteorological _ department of the government.
(v) Special features of an animal to live in its surrounding is called _adaptation__
(vi) One of the important feature of tropical region is _hot climate__.
(vii) The temperature, humidity, rainfall and other factors are called _elements_ of the weather.
Q7: Name a few countries where tropical rain forests are present.
Answer: Countries where the tropical rainforests are found:
- Republic of Congo
|Satellite View of Hurricane|
Answer: The Meteorological department collects data on temperature, wind, etc., and prepares various kinds of weather reports.
- It also makes the weather prediction.
- It provides services to aviation sector like fog information.
- It issues various national and zonal alerts like cyclone, tsunami information etc.
- It studies and identifies seismic activities and provides earthquake reports.
- It helps farmers and agriculture sector by providing monsoon and rainfall reports.
- The department also use Satellite data to map patterns of heating and cooling of various regions of the earth.
Q9(NCERT): Indicate the type of climate of the following areas:
(a) Jammu and Kashmir: _extreme cold in winters, moderately hot and wet climate
for a part of the year_
(b) Kerala: __hot and wet____
(c) Rajasthan: __hot and dry___
(d) North-east India: _wet__
Q10: Name the instrument used to measure rainfall.
Answer: Rain gauge
Q11: What do you mean by Climate?
Answer: The average weather pattern taken over a long time, say 25 years, is called the climate of the place.
Q12(NCERT): Which of the two changes frequently, weather or climate?
Answer: Weather changes frequently. It is based on atmospheric conditions (humidity, rainfall, wind speed etc.) in that place of that day.
Climate is the long-term average of a region’s weather (e.g. 25 years).
Q13: What do you mean by adaptation?
Answer: The tendency of an animal (organism) to develop special features which improve the chances of its survival in the surroundings where it lives is called adaptation.
e.g. the thick coat of fur of polar bear is its adaptation to survive in polar/cold region.
Q14: What is the relationship among climate, adaptation and evolution?
Answer: Climate plays an important role on living organisms. It brings about certain changes in the shape, structure and function of animal body so that it can live and survive in those climatic conditions. These features and habits that help animals to adapt to their surroundings are a result of the process of evolution.
Q15(NCERT): Following are some of the characteristics of animals:
(i) Diets heavy on fruits (ii) White fur
(iii) Need to migrate (iv) Loud voice
(v) Sticky pads on feet (vi) Layer of fat under skin
(vii) Wide and large paws (viii) Bright colours
(ix) Strong tails (x) Long and large beak
For each characteristic indicate whether it is adaptation for tropical rainforests or polar regions. Do you think that some of these characteristics can be adapted for both regions?
(i) Diets heavy on fruits : tropical rainforests
(ii) White fur : polar region
(iii) Need to migrate : polar region
(iv) Loud voice : tropical rainforests
(v) Sticky pads on feet : tropical rainforests
(vi) Layer of fat under skin: polar region
(viii) Bright colours : tropical rainforests
(ix) Strong tails : tropical rainforests
(x) Long and large beak : tropical rainforests
In general, the characteristics adapted are specific to a region only.
Q16: How do penguins keep themselves warm?
Answer: Penguins huddle together to keep themselves warm.
Q17(NCERT): The tropical rainforest has a large population of animals. Explain why it is so.
Answer: The climatic conditions in rainforests are highly suitable for supporting an enormous number and variety of animals. It is due to the following reasons:
- Climate is hot and gets plenty of rainfall. Because of continuous warmth and rain, this region supports wide variety of plants and animals.
- The region being near to equator, receives more solar energy available. It contributes to higher productivity in terms of food and population.
- Tropical rainforest remained less disturbed for millions of years, thus giving longer time to evolution. It resulted in wide variety of species.
Answer: Monkeys, apes, gorillas, lions, tigers, elephants, leopards, lizards, snakes, birds and insects.
Q19: Where do we find tropical rainforest in India?
Answer: Tropical rainforests are found in Western Ghats (Kerela, Karnataka, Nilgiri Hills, Maharashtra etc.) and Assam in India,
[Note: Western Ghats are roughly parallel to the west coast region of India]
Q20(NCERT): Explain, with examples, why we find animals of certain kind living in particular climatic conditions.
Answer: Animals are adapted to the conditions in which they live. These adaptations are the outcomes of long process of evolution. It would be difficult for them to survive if they are moved to region having different climate conditions than from their habitat.
- A polar bear has thick layer of fat under their skin which acts heat insulator. It protects the bear from extreme cold climate of polar region. The polar bear cannot survive if it is moved to hot and dry desert region.
- Monkeys have long tails for grasping branches adapted to live in tropical rain forests. It cannot survive in polar regions.
Answer: An elephant has adapted to rainforest climatic conditions in the following ways:
- It long trunk which acts as nose has a strong sense of smell.
- It also uses its trunk to pick up food.
- Its tusks are modified teeth which can tear the bark of trees for food.
- Large ears of the elephant help it to hear even very soft sounds.
- Large ears also help the elephant to keep cool in the hot and humid climate of the
(a) polar regions
(d) tropical rainforests
Answer: (d) tropical rainforests
Q23(MCQ): Which features adapt polar bears to live in extremely cold climate?
(a) A white fur, fat below skin, keen sense of smell.
(b) Thin skin, large eyes, a white fur.
(c) A long tail, strong claws, white large paws.
(d) White body, paws for swimming, gills for respiration.
Answer: (a) A white fur, fat below skin, keen sense of smell.
Q24(MCQ): Which option best describes a tropical region?
(a) hot and humid
(b) moderate temperature, heavy rainfall
(c) cold and humid
(d) hot and dry
Answer: (a) hot and humid
Penguin Life cycle: Watch the movie "March of the Penguins"
|Life Cycle of Penguins|
MCQ): Which of the following is NOT an element of weather?
Answer: (c) Soil
Q26: What is camouflage?
Answer: Many tropical animals can blend their skin colour with the surroundings. This feature is called camouflage. It protects them from predators. It also helps wild cats (e.g. lions and tigers) to catch their prey.