Tuesday, November 27, 2012

CBSE Class 10 - English (C) Workbook - Unit 11- MODALS-EXPRESSING ATTITUDES

CBSE Class 10 - English (C) Workbook - Unit 11- MODALS-EXPRESSING ATTITUDES

A.1 Complete the following dialogues using only one word for each blank on the basis of the pictures given in textbook.


a) Manav: Suma is playing the violin very well.
     Priya : Yes; _Can__ you play any musical instrument?
  Manav : I _cannot__. But I have learnt vocal music.

b) Peter: It's suddenly become dark.
Nandiya : Yes; Thick clouds have gathered in the sky. It _may__ rain this evening.

c) Abdullah: Ma'm , I'm a little late.
                     _May__ I enter the class?
Teacher: You _may__. I'm afraid late coming has become a habit with you.

d) Father: Take this. You _must_ not forget to wear your helmet while riding your motorbike.
Son: Thanks, Dad. I forgot to pick it up.

The words that you have used to fill in the blanks denote certain attitudes and functions. Match column (A) with column (B) for the dialogues that you have completed.

Attitudes and Functions    

A.2 Given below are some dialogues. Circle the modals and underline the main verbs in the italicised portions of the dialogues:

a) A: Raju has fractured his arm.
    B: But still he can write.  (ability)

b) A: I have still some shopping to do. May I leave my bag in your store? (Permission)
    B: Yes, but please collect it before 8.00 pm.

c) A: The coffee is rather bitter. Would you please pass some sugar? (Polite Request)
    B:  No, you must not take any sugar. (Necessity)
    Have you forgotten your doctor's advice?

d) A: I'll not be able to finish my assignment in time.
    B: Shall I do the drawings for you? (Question, offering help)

e) A: Jamila hasn't come yet. It's already very late.
    B: She may come tomorrow. (Factual Possibility)

f) A: Someone is knocking on the door.
    B: I'll open it- it'll be the maid. (certainty)

g) A: My feet get swollen in the evening.
    B: Then you must consult a doctor. (Emphatic Advice)

A.3 Match the italicized portions of the dialogues with the attitudes and functions denoted by the modals used in them.


DialogueAttitudes and Functions
a) … he can writeability
b) … would you please pass …     requesting
c)… you must not… advising
d) shall I do… offering (help)
e) she may come … logical deduction
f) … It'll be the maidpossibility
g) … you must consult… necessity
h) May I leave… asking for permission

A.5 Look at the following sentences:

a) He needn't come to office tomorrow.
b) He needed permission to take a day off.

What is the difference in the use of 'need' between the above sentences?
In sentence (a) 'need' is used as a _auxillary/helping_ verb because _need is followed by main verb 'come'_.

In sentence (b) 'need' is used as a _principal verb__ verb because _there if no other verb and 'need' defines the action___.

A.6 Complete the following conversation choosing the most appropriate options from those given in the box. There can be more than one option for some of the blanks.

Gautam:     I heard that Rahim (1) ________ open a garment shop, though he is a little
Sheela:He (2) _______ not plunge into another business proposition; he (3) ______
forget the colossal failure of his last business venture.

You (4) _______ not have any worry on that count. He (5) ______ not be
investing any money. His uncle is providing the capital and he said that
Rahim (6) ________ be a working partner.
Sheela:In that case, I suppose, he (7) ________ go ahead. I remember how
Rahim's father (8) _____ sit for hours worrying about his son's future.
Gautam:True. Now that Rahim has learnt his lesson, he (9) _____ be able to live
upto the expectations of his father.

Whatever you say, Rahim (10) ________ have his own way. He is that way
a little obstinate. We (11)________ only hope that everything turns out


a) may ✓
b) can
c) could
d) will

a) need
b) dare ✓
c) will
d) shall

a) needn't
b) shouldn't ✓
c) won't
d) can't

a) will
b) shall
c) need ✓
d) dare

a) could
b) will ✓
c) shall
d) must

a) can
b) would  ✓ (past tense of will)
c) should
d) could

a) will
b) might
c) can
d) should ✓
a) could
b) would  ✓ (denotes condition or uncertainty)
c) will
d) should

a) should
b) shall
c) could
d) will ✓
a) must ✓ (strong obligation)
b) will
c) can
d) may

a) may
b) will
c) can ✓
d) must.

B. Modals Expressing Possibility

B.2 Indira and Mary are discussing their holiday plans. Read the dialogue and fill in the blanks by using suitable modals

Indira:     I'm so thrilled the exams are over.
Let's go to the North-East this time.
Mary: Yes. I'd love that. Where exactly do you want to go?
Indira: I'd like to go to Cherapunji.
Mary:That's hardly the place to go to. You see, it _will be (certainty)____ raining
there, especially at this time of the year. Let's go to Shillong instead.
Indira: Why Shillong?
Mary:Indira, I've lived in that place. You'll love it and the weather _should be/must be (belief in certainty)_ really perfect now.
Indira: Okay, it's Shillong then. But tell me, do I need to carry woollens?
Mary:Not really. It's quite pleasant, but the nights _could be/ might be (least likely, less sure)__ chilly, so bring a sweater.
Indira: And what about getting there?
Mary:Well… you could fly to Juwahah, and then you can catch a bus to Shillong.
Indira: How far is Shillong?
Mary:It _must be__ about 80 kilometres. It __will be_____ a three hour drive by taxi.

B.3 'Can' and 'Could' also denote ability. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the example using 'Can' or 'Could'.


Example: Parents who are able to support their children should not apply for scholarship.
⇒Parents who can support their children should not apply for scholarship.

a) After proper investigation the police were able to nail the culprit.
⇒ After proper investigation the police could nail the culprit.
(Note: The above statement is dicey one.  It also means the police might catch the culprit but it didn't. If the sentence means the police would be able to, it is correct. Please discuss it with your teacher.)

b) After the examinations, I shall be able to go home for a week.
⇒ After the examinations, I can go home for a week.

c) In spite of the sincere efforts of the coach, the team is not able to win a single trophy.
⇒ In spite of the sincere efforts of the coach, the team could not win a single trophy.

Did you notice that 'can' is used to denote ability in the present and future and 'could' is used to denote ability in the past? However, remember that 'could' refers to past time only when the context makes the time clear.

C. Modals - Past, Present & Future

C.1 Read the following report of a school cricket match and underline all the modals and the verbs accompanying them. Underline the modals red and the verbs green.

Our school cricket team is practicing really hard for the zonal matches. I have no doubt that we will beat the local teams very easily, but when it comes to the outside teams, I am not as confident. Our boys must work very hard. Perhaps they could do some yoga exercises to improve their concentration. They need not worry about their fitness at this stage, but they should follow a strict

Last year they had to struggle to reach the finals. The draw might have been a little unfavourable to them but they shouldn't have neglected their fielding. This landed them in trouble in the quarter finals. This year our team should try and do better in the field. We lost the finals last year mainly because of floored catches! A casual approach to this aspect must have been the cause of our
failure at the crucial stage. So our team ought to improve its fielding and get its batting to click.

C.2 You will have noticed in C1 that modals are used with a main verb to refer to the past, present or future. In pairs, look at the modals you have underlined and complete the table below. You may have noticed sometimes that the same modal is used to refer to the present as well as the future.


PresentPast  Future   
Musthad towill
Should should not have       could
Need not        must haveshould
ought tohad towill

C.3: Mr Mehta and family decide to drive down to Goa for a holiday. On their way their car develops some problem. Given below is a conversation between the Mehta family members. Read the conversation and complete the conversation using suitable modals from the ones given in the box.

Note: Sometimes there could be more than one correct answer. You may also have to use some of the modals in the box more than once.
must have, will, can't have, may have, must, may, could, needn't, can


Mrs.Mehta:     What is the matter? Why have you stopped?
 Mr. Mehta:The car is giving some trouble.I have a feeling something is wrong with the engine. Let me check.
Mrs. Mehta:Do you think we __may have_____ run out of petrol?
 Mr. Mehta:No, we __can't have_______ run out of petrol. I got the tank filled before starting.
Mrs. Mehta:If there is a technical fault, do you think you _will___ be able to fix it?
Mr. Mehta:Let me first check what is wrong.
Dinu:Dad, look there's smoke coming out . The engine _must have/may have___ become too hot.
Mr. Mehta:Dinu, be careful. Don't take the cap off the radiator. You _must __ not do that. You _can/may____get boiling water all over you.
Mrs Mehta:Yes, Dinu, we _will have_____ have to wait till the engine cools down.
Dinu:And how long do you think it __will __ take for that?
Mr Mehta:I'm not sure. We __may____ have to wait for about fifteen minutes.
Dinu:Dad, I saw a garage about half a mile back. I suppose we _must/could___ ask them to fix the problem.
Mr Mehta:You __needn't_____ worry . The car __will____be all right . I got it serviced before starting. I am sure it's just got too hot. Let's wait and allow the engine to cool a bit.
Dinu:Mom, I am feeling hungry. __May______ I have something to eat?
Mrs Mehta:There are some sandwiches in the car. You _can____ have them.

D. Modals - Referring to the Past

D.1 Respond to the following situations by writing one sentence using might have, must have, should have, could have or ought to have. The first one has been done as an example.

1. Amber was certain that he would be here today, but he hasn't come yet (miss, flight)

Response: He must have missed his flight; nothing else would have held him up.

2. I was asked to be here for a meeing at 10.00 today. It's already 10.30 and only a few of us are present. (meeting, cancel)

Response: The meeting might have cancelled, you'd better wait for another half an hour.

3. They say they definitely sent the appointment letter by post, but it never arrived. (send fax message)

Response: They could have sent a fax message instead.

4. The Municilality did not bother about keeping the locality clean. When the epidemic broke out, it claimed many lives. (take precautions, prevent epidemic)

Response: The Municipality should have taken precautions and might have prevented epidemic.

5. The Principal is not in her office. She probably had some urgent work at home. (go, home)

Response: She might have gone home.

6. Asha wasn't really a big hit as the heroine of the play. The director needn't have limited his choice to Class XII sutdents alone. (try, some of the XI class students)

Response: He ought to have tried some of the XI class students.

D.2 Complete the following paragraph on a school sport meeting by filling in the blanks with could not have, might not have, should not have or would not have.

At this year's sports meeting, many records were broken but the reigning sports champion. Ravi, surprisingly could not make it to the finals in any of his favourite events. Perhaps he _should not have_ missed so many of his practice sessions. His coach tends think that he _could not have_ had the time to get fit enough because of his special classes in the evenings. Even if he had tried, he _might not have_ beaten Ramu, who was much better prepared. If it had not been for Ramu, our school _would not have_ gained a place in the draw of the interschool tournament.

D. 3 Anant has returned from an interview. Read the dialogue, that takes place between Anant and his father. In pairs, fill in the blanks using any suitable modals. To help you, the number of words you need to use is given in brackets.

Father: Well , Anant, how was the interview?
Anant:Father, it was a real nightmare. Just about everything went wrong. I was late. I didn't have the required papers and the GK questions…!
Father:Really ! Anant, please don't think I'm lecturing you, but I'd like to say something about how you _could have______ (2) handled the whole business better.
Anant:Father, I wish you ___need not_________ (2) say that. You _must/might have_____ (2)
seen the amount of effort I put in.
Father:Well…. I have my doubts about that. First, let's take up this business about being late.
Anant:Please remember I only got six days' notice.

No, my dear, it was more than that. If I'm not mistaken, you got the interview call on Saturday itself. If I'd been you, I _would have___ (2) begun my preparation on Saturday itself. Honestly you _should not have_______ (3) gone off on that weekend trip.
Anant:Father you know I'd been planning to go on that trip for ages.
Father:Well… if you had stayed home you__could have____ (2) made a list of the papers required and filed them systematically.
Anant:Yes, perhaps you're right, but father - those GK questions ….?
Father:What about them? Haven't you been reading the papers regularly?
Anant:Yes of course. But those questions were so outdated. I __could not have____ (3) answered them even if I had read the paper every single day for the past 10 years.
Father:Ananat, there is no point complaining now. You _should/ought to_ (1)/ (2) be prepared to be more alert about these things.

E. Modals - Summary

E.1 Read the following letter and choose the most suitable alternative from those given. Underline your choice. Sometimes more than one alternative is suitable.

Dear Mohan

It was lovely to get your letter and to hear the good news that you are going trekking with your friends. You (ought to/ would/ should) have a break after your exams! You ask me what you (can/ should/ will) take. Well, you (might/can't/ mustn't) fit everything in a backpack so you must be selective. You (will/ can/ must) take at least one sweater because it (ought to/ should/ can)
get very cold in the mountains. You (needn't/ could/ should) pack a gas stove because there (could/ may/ will) be plenty of firewood from dead trees.

I'm sure you will have a wonderful time but I (may/ would/ should) give you a word of warning. Don't get stuck in the Laki Pass at night. Once you're there you (won't be able to/ can't be able to/ not to bale to) get down and it's very dangerous at night. By the way, you (should/ should have to/ should have) told me earlier that you were going and I (should have/ would have/ will have) given you my walking boots!

Anyway, look after yourself and enjoy your holiday.

With love
(In progress...)


  1. Complete the progress yaar... waiting for it

  2. please post e2 and e3. will be very grateful to you if you do. please please post it. thank you so much!

  3. plz complete it.Integrated grammar practice is also required

  4. plz complete it.Integrated grammar practice is also required

  5. integrated grammar practice is required

  6. integrated grammar practice is required

  7. Integrated grammar practice is required...