FROM GATHERING TO GROWING FOOD
|The first Painter|
NCERT Solution and Q & A
Q1: Name the first animal tamed by humans.
Q2: Name the earliest domesticated animals.
Answer: Sheep and Goat
Q3: Name the earliest plants to be domesticated.
Answer: Wheat and barley
Q4: How could the prehistoric people could tame animals like dogs and pigs?
Answer: Women, men and children could attract and then tame animals by leaving food for them near their shelters.
Answer: Following could be the possible reasons that the dog might be the first animal to be tamed:
- Dogs could help the ancient people in hunting.
- Dogs could help in providing security and safety to humans and their food from wild animals.
- Dogs were relatively gentle as compared to other wild animals.
- Under extreme weather conditions, dogs could be eaten as food. (In China, Korea and tribal areas of India and Africa, dog meat is still served today).
Q6: What is domestication?
Answer: It is the process in which people grow plants and look after animals. Very often, plants and animals that are tended by people become different from wild plants and animals.
Q7(NCERT): Why do people who grow crops have to stay in the same place for a long time?
Answer: When people began growing plants, it meant that they had to stay in the same place for a long time looking after the plants, watering, weeding, driving away animals and birds — till the grain ripened. And then, the grain had to be used carefully.
Q8: Do you think hunter-gatherers would have made and used pots? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer: Probably not. Because they were food gatherer not food-producers. They did not have large quantity of grains as a produce from agriculture. They did not require any pot or basket to store grains.
Q9: Did all the people engage themselves in herding and farming?
Answer: No. apart from herding and farming, people also made pottery to store grains and cooked food.
Q10: What were in different ways the food grains were used in pre-historic age?
Answer: Ways in which grain was used:
- as food
- as seed
- as gift
Q11(NCERT): Look at the table on page 25. If Neinuo wanted to eat rice, which are the places she should have visited?
Answer: She could have visited the following places:
- Koldihwa (in present-day Uttar Pradesh)
- Mahagara (in present-day Uttar Pradesh)
Q12: Archaeologists have found pit-houses in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir), which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Why did the ancient people make such type of pit houses?
Answer: Kashmir being a cold region. Pit houses might have provided shelter in cold weather.
Q13: What are the main differences we find in Neolithic tools when compared to tools of Paleoloithic age?
Answer: In neolithic age (New Stone Age 8000 - 4000 BC), man progressed further and his tools were better than used in Paleolithic age (Old Stone Age 50000 - 10000 BC):
- Neolithic tools were polished to give a fine cutting edge.
- Mortars and pestles used for grinding grain and other plant produce.
- Axes, sickles, spears, bows and arrows were used.
Q14(NCERT): Why do archaeologists think that many people who lived in Mehrgarh were hunters to start with and that herding became more important later?
Answer: Archaeologists excavated the site and found evidence of many kinds of animal bones from the earliest levels. These included bones of wild animals such as the deer and pig. In later levels,
they found more bones of sheep and goat, and in still later levels, cattle bones are most common. All of these indicate, people who lived in Mehrgarh were hunters initially. Later they started herding and keeping cattle.
Q15(NCERT):State whether true or false:
(a) Millets have been found at Hallur. True (✓)
(b) People in Burzahom lived in rectangular houses. False (✗)
(c) Chirand is a site in Kashmir. - False (✗)
(d) Jadeite, found in Daojali Hading, may have been brought from China - True (✓)
Q16: List where Neolithic sites were found in India
Answer: Mehrgarh (now in Pakistan), Burzahom (Jammu & Kashmir region), Chirand (Bihar), Daojali Hading (near Brhamputra valley)
Q17: How was the life of people who lived during Neolithic age different from those who lived in Paleolithic age?
Answer: By the time the man entered Neolithic age, he left his nomadic life and started sedentary life. Earlier he was hunter and food gatherer. During Neolithic age, he started agriculture and herding.
Q18: What type of houses were found at Mehrgarh Neolithic site?
Answer: During excavation square or rectangular houses were found. Each house had four or more compartments, some of which may have been used for storage.
Q19: What type of food was grown and kind of cattle was kept by the people of Mehrgarh during Neolithic age?
Answer: It is believed that Mehrgarh was probably one of the places where women and men learnt to grow barley and wheat and rear sheep and goats for the first time in this area.
Q20: Name the Neolithic site where the concept of villages appeared.
Q21: List the three important developments that occurred in Neolithic age.
Answer: Three major developments during Neolithic age are:
- Beginning of agriculture practices
- Making of pottery
- Invention of wheel
- Beginning of human settlements.