Eighteenth Century Political Formations
Short Q & A
Q1: Who were Later Mughals?
Answer: The Mughal successors of Aurangzeb were known as Later Mughals. They were weak leaders and Mughal empire declined in their reigns.
Q2: During the period of Later Mughals, name the Iranian ruler who invaded Delhi?
Answer: Nadir Shah in 1739.
Q3: Name the Afghan ruler who invaded north India five times in Later Mughals period?
Answer: Ahmad Shah Abdali between 1748 and 1761.
Q4: The later Mughal emperors were puppets in the hands of which two powerful groups?
Answer: The Iranis and Turanis (nobles of Turkish descent).
Q5: Who was the founder of Maratha empire?
Q6: Who was the founder of the Sikhism?
Answer: Guru Nanak Dev
Q7: What were Watan Jagirs?
Answer: States that had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals as watan jagirs. These included several Rajput principalities (e.g. Jodhpur, Marwar).
Q8: Who was the the founder of Hyderabad state during Later Mughals?
Answer: Asaf Jah or Chin Quilich Khan who gave himself title as Nizam-ul-Mul.
Q9: The state of Hyderabad was constantly engaged in a struggle against which kingdoms?
Answer: The Marathas to the west, independent Telugu warrior chiefs (nayakas) of the plateau and the British of the Coromandel coast in the east.
Q10: Who found the state of Awadh after breaking up with Later Mughals?
Answer: Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa‘adat Khan
Q11: Who found the state of Bengal after breaking away from Mughal control?
Answer: Murshid Quli Khan
Q12: Under whose reignthe banking house of Jagat Seth became extremely prosperous.
Answer: Alivardi Khan
Q13: List the three common features found amongst Hyderabad, Awadh and Bengal during Later Mughals period.
- Mughal nobles were highly suspicious of some of the administrative systems that they had inherited, in particular the jagirdari system.
- Their method of tax collection differed. Rather than relying upon the officers of the state, all three regimes contracted with revenue-farmers for the collection of revenue (called ijaradari).
- All these regional states was their emerging relationship with rich bankers and merchants.
Q14: Who founded the institution of the Khalsa ?
Answer: Guru Gobind Singh against
Q15: Who after the death of Guru Gobind Singh, led the revolt against Mughal empire?
Answer: Banda Bahadur
Q16: Who were Misls?
Answer: Sikhs organized themselves into smaller groups. These groups were called Jathas or Misls.
Q17: Who were deshmukhs?
Answer: Powerful Maratha warrior families were called deshmukhs.
Q18: What was Chauth?
Answer: It was 25 per cent of the land revenue claimed by zamindars. In the Deccan this was collected by the Marathas.
Q19: What was Sardeshmukhi?
Answer: Maratha Kings levied a tax on Deccan peninsula called Sardeshmukhi. It was 9-10 per cent of the land revenue paid to the head revenue collector in the Deccan.
Q20: Name the Jat king under whose leadership, Jats acquired the region between Delhi and Agra in 1680s?
Q21: Name the Jat king under whose leadership the kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state.
Answer: Suraj Mal