Principles Of ManagementShort Q & A
|F Taylor - who proposed |
scientific management theory
Q1: What is meant by Management principles?
Answer: Management principles are broad and general guidelines for decision making and behaviour. These are those basic truths which have the ability to predict the result of the managerial activities.
Q2: How are the principles developed?
Answer: These are developed on the basis of observation and experimentation as well as personal experiences of the managers.
Q3: Why is it said that the principles of management are universal?
Answer: Because these principles are intended to apply to all types of organisations, business as well as non-business, small as well large, public sector as well as private sector, manufacturing as well as the services sectors.
Q4: Why are the principles of management are considered contingent?
Answer: The application of principles of management is contingent or dependent upon the prevailing situation at a particular point of time. The
application of principles has to be changed as per requirements.
Q5: Why is it said that principles of management are flexible?
Answer: This is because they can be modified by the managers when the situation so demands.
Q6: The principles of management aren't rigid and can be modified when the situation demands. Which nature of principles is being discussed here?
Q7: Which principles of management promotes team spirit?
Answer: Esprict De Corps.
Q8: State one violating effect of the principle of ‘Division of work’.
Answer: Lack of specialization.
Q9: Define scientific management.
Answer: It is the application of a scientific approach to managerial decision making.
Q10: Who was the first to identity functions of management?
Answer: Henri Payol
Q11: State two features of scientific management.
Answer: a) It is a systematic approach
b) It brings complete mental change.
Q12: Which principle of management suggests that a subordinate should receive orders from and be accountable to one superior?
Answer: Principle of Unity of command.
Q13: List any two principle of 'Scientific Management' formulated by Taylor for managing an organization scientifically.
Answer: i) Science, not Rule of Thumb.
ii) Harmony, not Discord.
Q14: Who gave the concept of scientific management? What was his profession?
Answer: F.W.Taylor, an American, gave the concept of scientific management. He was a mechanical engineer.
Q15: Factory owners or managers relied on personal judgment in attending to the problems they confronted in the course of managing their work. Which principle of Taylor is it referring to?
Answer: 'Rule of thumb'
Q16: Which principle of scientific management suggest the introduction of scientific investigation and analysis of management practice?
Answer: Science, not rule of Thumb.
Q17: What is meant by Simplification as a technique of scientific management?
Answer: Simplification refers to putting an end to unnecessary types,qualities,sizes etc.
Q18: Mr. Sinha is a manager. He expects his colleagues to get work out of subordinates without giving them any powers. Which principle of management is being overlooked and why?
Answer: Principle of parity of Authority and Responsibility.
Q19: What is the basis of formation of scientific management?
Answer: Observation and Experimentation.
Q20: What do you mean by Mental Revolution?
Answer: Mental Revolution means revolutionary change in the attitude of both workers and managers from competition to cooperation.
Q21: What is the aim of Method study?
Answer: Aim is to find one best method of doing the job.
Q22: What is the aim of doing motion study?
Answer: The aim of this study is to eliminate unnecessary movements so as to ensure timely completion of work.
Q23: What is the purpose of time study?
Answer: To estimate or determine a fair day’s work.
Q24: Which principle of management aims at securing the loyalty and devotion of the employees by giving them fair and just treatment?
Answer: Principle of Equity.
Q25: Which principle of management is violated if an employee is asked to receive orders from two superiors?
Answer: Principle of unity of Command
Q26: “Workers should be encouraged to develop and carry out their plans for improvements”. Identify the principle of management formulated by Fayol.
Answer: Principle of initiative.
Q27: Distinguish between contribution made by Fayol and Taylor on the basis of applicability.
Answer: Fayols principles are applied universally as they are general in nature whereas Taylors principles are specific as they are scientific in nature.
Q28: It has been observed that the prevailing situation in an organization is due to the violations of the principle of ‘order’. What might have been your observation?
Answer: It may be that people and materials are not in suitable places at appropriate time.
Q29: A company manufacturing motorcycles and cars should have separate divisions for both, headed by separate divisional managers, separate plans and resources. Identify the principle with the help of this example.
Answer: Unity of Direction
Q30: Which principle of management is violated when a manager grants one month medical leave to a superior with pay and only one week medical leave to an accountant?
Answer: Principle of Equity.
Q31: Which principle of management envisages that each group of activities having the same objective must have one head and one plan? Explain the principle with suitable example.
Answer: Unity of Direction
Q32: If an organization does not provide the right place for physical and human recourses in the organization, which principle is violated? What are its consequences?
Answer: Principle of Order.
Q33: Explain FAYOL’S Principle of DIVISION OF WORK
Q(CBSE): State the adverse effects on the violation of the principle of division of work.
Answer: According to this principle of Fayol’s, every task should be divided into small task and assigned to the right person who is capable of doing that job. He should also be trained for doing that job. This is called division of labour. This principle applies to all kinds of work managerial as well as technical
Positive Effects: A person holding the same post and doing the same job will over time specialise in that job and improve his performance, efficiency and result in increased output.
Adverse Effects: If this principle is violated it leads to the following:
(b) delay in work
(c) increase in costs
(d) decrease in output.
Q34: Explain FAYOL’S PRINCIPLE OF DISCIPLINE
Answer: According to Fayol, discipline means respect for agreements that are directed at achieving energy, application, obedience and outward mark of respect.
Fayol says that discipline requires:
- Good supervisors at all levels
- Agreements should be clear and fair
- Penalties should be fairly imposed
However Fayol does not support wrong use of authority to enforce discipline such as warnings, fines, suspensions, dismissal, etc.
Example: If a company has entered into agreement with employees regarding their wages for 5 years then the company should honour it. Likewise, employee should also honour the agreed terms.