KINDS OF SENTENCES (Part 1)
Sentences based on functions are categorised as follows:
1. Assertive Sentences
2. Interrogative Sentences
3. Imperative Sentences
4. Optative Sentences
5. Exclamatory Sentences
Assertive SentencesThese sentences merely assert an incident or a fact.
The sun is a big star. (Affirmative)
The Taj is a beautiful monument. (Affirmative)
He is not in Delhi. (Negative)
It does not glow at night. (Negative)
Sentences that affirm one or the other fact are called affirmative sentences. First two sentences listed above are affirmative ones.
Sentences that negate a fact are called negative sentences. The last two sentences listed above are negative sentences.
Convert the following affirmative sentences into negative sentences.
1. I like him.
2. Banana is a sweet fruit.
3. They play for Delhi Soccer club.
4. We sing a song.
5. He gets up early.
1. I do not like him.
2. Banana is not a sweet fruit.
3. They do not play for Delhi Soccer club.
4. We do not sing a song.
5. He does not get up early.
Interrogative SentencesThese sentences simply ask questions. Examples are:
1. Where are you?
2. When is your flight?
3. Have you finished your work?
4. Was your paper tough?
✍ Put a question mark (?) at the end of a question.
✍ Questions are of two types:
i. Those begin with helping (auxiliary) verbs (be, is, are, am, was, were, has, have, had,shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, might etc.)
Have you met her?
Was your examination easy?
ii. Those begin with 'Wh' question words (why, where, when, how, whose, whom etc.) and followed by helping works.
Who is this lady?
Why are you late?
Convert the following into interrogative sentences.
1. He is a teacher.
2. My son will go to California.
3. I go to school by bus.
4. She danced very well.
5. He did his homework last Sunday.
1. Is he a teacher?
2. Will my son go to California?
3. Do I go to school by bus?
4. Did she dance very well?
5. Did he do his homework last Sunday?
These sentences are used to order, advise, command or ask for some favour. Examples are:
1. Come here. (Order)
2. Please give me something to eat. (Request)
3. Listen to her. (order/Advice)
4. Do not smoke here. (Prohibition)
✍ Begin an imperative sentence with a verb.
✍ Do not use a subject. It is always 'You' and is not mentioned.
✍ Imperative sentences end with a full stop.
Optative SentencesThese sentences are used to bless or curse some one. These convey the good or bad sentiments of the speaker.
1. May you live long!
2. God save you from this crisis!
3. Would that I were millionaire!
4. May your enemy go to hell!
✍ Optative sentences begin with 'May','Would' or 'God'
✍ They end with mark of exclamation (!).
Exclamatory SentencesThese sentences express sudden feelings and emotions of the speaker. Examples are:
1. Hush! the baby is asleep.
2. Bravo! our school team won the finals. (Joy)
3. Alas! I've lost my job. (Sorrow)
4. How pretty the picture is! (Surprise)
5. What a fool I am!
✍ Generally begin an Exclamatory sentence with a word of exclamation.
✍ Except 'What' and 'How', all other words of exclamations take the mark of exclamation (!) after them.
✍ 'What' and 'How' show surprise or disbelief and mark of exclamation (!) is used at the end of sentence.
✍ Common words used to express exclamation are:
Alas - Sorrow
Hurrah - Joy
Hello - Attention
Hush - Attention
Pooh - Disgust
Ha - Surprise (Joy)
O, Oh - Surprise
Boo - fright
Eek - Unpleasant surprise
Mention the kind of sentences (Assertive, Interrogative, Imperative, Optative or Exclamatory) in the blanks against it.
1. Ah! What a find morning it is! ___________________________
2. Do you find it interesting? ___________________________
3. May you lead a happy life! ___________________________
4. Smoking is bad for health. ___________________________
5. Always help the needy. ___________________________
6. Hello! I am Sania this side. ___________________________