Monday, October 3, 2016

Class 8 - Our Pasts3 - When People Rebel 1857 and After (Q and A)

When People Rebel 1857 and After


Begum Hazrat Mahal (Awadh)
Women like Rani Laxmi Bai, Hazrat Mahal took an active part in 1857 revolt.

Q & A based on NCERT Chapter


Q1: What was the state of Nawabs and Kings during mid-eighteenth century?

Answer:
ⓐ Nawabs and kings had seen their power erode.
ⓑ They gradually lost their authority and honour.
ⓒ Their freedom have been reduced and their forces were disbanded.
ⓓ Their revenues and territories taken away by stages.


Q2: What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?

Answer: After the death of her husband, Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the East India Company to recognise her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom. This demand was refused by the British. Finally, the Company annexed the kingdom as per the Doctrine of Lapse.


Q3: What plea of Nan Saheb was turned down by the East India Company?

Answer: Nana Saheb was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He pleaded that he would be given his father’s pension when the latter died. However, the Company, confident of its superiority and military powers, turned down his plea.


Q4: Who was the Governor General when Awadh was annexed in 1856?

Answer: Dalhousie


Q5: How was Awadh annexed by the East India company?

Answer: In 1801, a subsidiary alliance was imposed on Awadh. In 1856 it was taken over by the company on the pretext of misgovernace and poor administration.




Q6: Name the who decided that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal king?

Answer: Governor-General Canning


Q7: How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?

Answer: The last Mughal emperor spent the last years of his life in a jail in Rangoon along with his wife.


Q8: Why were the countryside peasants and zamindars not happy with the East India Company?

Answer: the countryside peasants and zamindars were not happy because of

① high taxes were imposed on them.

② Rigid methods were used in revenue collection.

③ Many failed to pay back their loans and finally lost their lands to moneylenders.


Q9: What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?

Answer: In 1850, a new law allowed an Indian who had converted to Christianity to inherit property of his ancestors. This law made it easier to convert to Christianity.


Q10: Name the book written by Vishnubhatt Godse in which he talked about massive upheaval as told by sepoys of the East India Company?

Answer: Majha Pravaas


Q11: Name the book written by Sitaram Pande aretired sepoy of the English.

Answer: From Sepoy to Subedar


Q12: Why were sepoys of the Company resented with her?

Answer: Following were the reasons of their discontent:

① They were unhappy about their pay, allowances and conditions of service.

② East India Company's new rules vilated their religious beliefs.

③ They had to had to agree to serve overseas, even though it was against their religios beliefs.

④ Most of the sepoys were peasants. They were unhappy when they saw the company torturing peasants for revenue collection.


Q13: Where did the sepoys of East India Company revolted which triggered the biggest armed resistance to colonialism in the nineteenth century anywhere in the world?

Answer: It began at Meerut and spread to other regions of Northern India.


Q14: What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?

Answer: The new cartridges introduced by East India company were coated with the fat of cows and pigs. Both Hindus and Muslim sepoys felt offended because their religious sentiments were affected. Therefore, they refused to use the cartridges. They felt that the British were trying to insult their religions.


Q15: What were the important concerns in the minds of the people according to Sitaram and according to Vishnubhatt?

Answer:

① Sitaram Pande believed that annexing of Awaddh grew distrust among Indian soldiers. The news of the greased cartridges with cow and pig fat worsened the situation.

② Vishnubhatt believed that the revolt of 1857 had both religious and political reasons. People did not want a firangi (foreigner) rule and believed that the company was planning to wipe out both Hindu and Islam religions.


Q16: Who was Managal Pandey?

Answer: Mangal Pandey was an India Sepoy in the East India Company forces at Barrackpore. He refused to load guns with new greased cartridges. He was hanged to death by the Company.


Q17: What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?

Answer:
① He wrote letters to all the chiefs and rulers of the country to come forward and organize a confederacy of Indian states to fight with Britishers

② Nawabs and kings and religious leaders welcomed his step and joined rebels fight against the British.

③ Local leaders, zamindars and rulers who expected to regain their lost authority also joined the rebels.
④ People saw an alternative possibility and they feel inspired and enthused. It gave them the courage, hope and confidence to act. Soon a mutiny of soldiers turned into a rebellion.


Q18: List the important centres of revolt in North India.

Answer: Delhi, Meerut, Bareilly, Lucknow, Faizabad, Kanpur, Jhansi


Q19: How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?

Answer:  The British announced rewards for loyal landholders would be allowed to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands. They asked the rebel landowners if they submitted to the British, and if they had not killed any white people, they would remain safe and their rights and claims to land would not be denied.


Q20: What were the main causes of failure of revolt of 1857?

Answer:
① There was no unity among rebels. They fought at different fronts with limited resources.
② The idea of nationalism did not appeal to Indian masses.
③ The rebellion was not widespread all over the country.
④ Sikh, Rajput and Gorkha soldiers did not revolt and remained loyal to the British.
⑤ The British were better equipped in terms of communication, arms and network.


Q21: What was the aftermath of 1857 rebel?

OR

In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?


Answer:
① It was the end of East India Company in India. Its powers were transferred to British Crown.

② A member of the British Cabinet was appointed Secretary of State for India and made responsible for all matters related to the governance of India. He was given a council to advise him, called the India Council.

③ The Governor-General of India was given the title of Viceroy, representing British Crown.

④ The British Queen was acknowledged as their Sovereign Paramount and he Indian rulers were to hold their kingdoms as subordinates of the British Crown.

⑤ The number of European soldiers would be increased. It was also decided that instead of recruiting soldiers from Awadh, Bihar, central India and south India, more soldiers would be recruited from among the Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans.

⑥ The land and property of Muslims was confiscated on a large scale and they were treated with suspicion and hostility. The British believed that they were responsible for the rebellion in a big way.

⑦ The British decided not to interfere with the customary religious and social practices of the people in India.

⑧ Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars and give them security of rights over their lands.


Q22: Match the following:

Ⓐ Mangal Pandey ① Governor General
Ⓑ Tantia Tope ② Barrackpore.
Ⓒ Dalhousie ③ Jhansi
Ⓓ Rani Laxmi Bai ④ General of Nan Saheb's forces


Answer:
Mangal Pandey - Barrackpore
Tantia Tope   - General of Nan Saheb's forces
Dalhousie     - Governor General
Rani Laxmi Bai - Jhansi









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