Sunday, December 11, 2016

CBSE Class 10/9/8 - English Grammar - Types of Prepositions

Types of Prepositions

CBSE Class 10/9/8 - English Grammar - Types of Prepositions

I n the earlier post you have learned about forms of preposition. As we know a Preposition is a word place before a Noun (or Pronoun) to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by the Noun stands to something else.

Prepositions are mainly of five types:

Preposition of Place
Preposition of Time
Preposition of Direction
Preposition of Movement
Preposition of Position

Preposition of Place: There are three prepositions of places:

At - used for a point of place (for small towns, villages or less important or small places)
e.g.
At home
At the exit/entrance
At work
He lives at Meharauli in Delhi.
At school

In - Used for spaces, for large places, countries, large towns, state of rest or position inside anything.
e.g.
He lives in Delhi.
In the mall
He is in his room.
He lives at Panji in Goa.


On - used for surface tops
e.g.
We sat on the ground.
The book is lying on the table.
On the way
On the right/left
On the computer

☛NOTE: There are exceptions to these rules.
e.g. We discuss the whole matter at the table.
  [To discuss matter we sit face to face, that's why at is used here.]

Preposition of Time: There are two prepositions of Time.

At - used to indicate precise time.
e.g. 
At ten o'clock
He came at sunset.
At this moment...
He will start at 5 pm.
 
Exception: At night is the exception. [Night is the duration not precise time.]
  ⒝ In - used to indicate a period of time.
Amitabh Bachchan was born in 1942.
In January...
He was born in Ireland in the eighteenth century.
 
Exception: In the morning/evening are the exceptions to this rule.

Preposition of Direction: There are eight prepositions of Direction.

To - used to indicate a specific destination
e.g.
I am going to my office.

Towards - used to refer to direction of the destination.
e.g.
I am going towards the station. [It means I am not going to the station but in the same direction.]

From - is used for the point of departure.
e.g.
He has come from the club.

Off - used to indicate either ‘being taken away from’ or ‘down from’ i.e. when two things separate.
e.g.
The cat fell off the tin roof.
The aeroplane took off at 4 pm.

Against - means 'pressing against' i.e. used to indicate contact or pressure
e.g.
The motorcycle leaned against the wall.

For - used to indicate direction only when the verb indicates the beginning of a movement.
e.g.
He is leaving for London today.

⒢  Out of - used to indicate departure from
e.g.
John went out of the classroom.

⒣   At - is used when we want to say 'face to face with'
e.g.
I was looking at the photograph.
I was sitting at the table.


Preposition of Movement: There are six prepositions of Movement.

Into - It refers to the movement towards the interior.
e.g.
He jumped into the river.

Through/Across - used to show the movement from one side to the other
e.g.
He swam across the river.
The hunters went through the forest.

Onto - used to show the movement on an object.
e.g.
The ball rolled onto the pavement.

Along - used to show the movement that is 'adjacent in line' or say 'in the same line'
e.g.
He walked along the bank of river.

In/On/By - used to indicate a means of
e.g.
He came by foot.

Up/Down - used to show the movement across an upper or lower level
e.g.
Jack and Jill climb up the hill.

Preposition of Position: There are six prepositions of Position.

Between - is used when we refer to persons
e.g.
What happened between these two I do not know.

Among - is used when we refer to more than two persons.
e.g.
Among all the five brothers he is the best.

Over, Above - Above means 'higher than' but over means 'vertically above'
e.g.
They stay above the shop.
The ceiling fan is over the table.

⒟ Below, Under - Below means 'lower than' whereas under means 'vertically below'
e.g.
I saw him standing below the building.
The cat went went under the floor.

Exception: He is sitting in the shade of the tree. [Not under the shade.]

⒠ Beneath - It means 'lower position/layer/level', but generally it is used figuratively.
e.g.
We sat beneath the apple tree.
We huddled together for warmth beneath the blankets.

⒡ Underneath - It means 'directly below' something facing towards ground.
e.g.
The tunnel goes right underneath the city.

There is a big list of prepositions that we'll discuss in the next posts.

Note: Try online quiz on prepositions.


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