Reading ComprehensionRead the passage carefully and then answer the questions which are based on what is stated or implied in the passage. (taken from a graduate entrance exam)
The work which Gandhiji had taken in hand was not only the achievement of political freedom but establishment of a social order based on truth and non-violence, unity and peace, equality and universal brotherhood, and maximum freedom for all. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps even more difficult to achieve than the achievement of freedom. In the political struggle the fight was against a foreign power and all could and did either join in it or at least wish it success and give it to their moral support. In establishing the social order of his pattern, there was a lively possibility of a conflict arising between groups and classes of our own people.
Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means for perpetuation and survival through his descendants after his body is reduced to ashes. That new order cannot be established without radically changing men’s mind and attitude towards property and at some stage or other the haves have to yield place to the have-nots. We have seen in our time attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and the picture of it in action after it was achieved. But this was done, by and large, by the use of physical force. In the result it is difficult, if not impossible, to say that the instinct to possess has been rooted out or that it will not reappear in an even worse form under a different face. It may even be that like gas kept confined within metallic containers under great pressure, or water held behind a big dam, that breaks the barrier, reaction will one day sweep back with a violence equal in extent and intensity to what was used to establish and maintain the outward egalitarian form. This enforced egalitarianism contains in its bosom the seed of its own destruction.
The root cause of class-conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instinct. So long as the ideal that is held up to be achieved is one of the securing the maximum of material satisfaction. Possessiveness is neither suppressed nor eliminated but grows by what it feeds upon. Nor does it cease to be such, it is possessiveness still whether it is confined to a few only or is shared by many. If egalitarianism is to endure, it has to be based not on the possession of the maximum of material goods whether by few or by all but on voluntary enlightened renunciation denying oneself what cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of others. This calls for substitution of spiritual values for purely material ones. The paradise of material satisfaction that is sometimes equated with progress these days neither spells peace nor progress. Mahatma Gandhi showed us how the acquisitive instinct inherent in man could be transmuted by the adoption of the ideal of trusteeship by those who have for the benefit of all those who have not so that, instead of leading to exploitation and conflict, it would become a means and incentive to the amelioration and progress of society.
Q1: According to the passage, true egalitarianism will last if
(a) It is based on truth and non-violence.
(b) It is thrust upon people.
(c) People inculcate spiritual values along with material values.
(d) Haves and have-nots live together peacefully.
Q2: According to the passage, people ultimately overturn the form of a social order
(a) Which is based on coercion and oppression
(b) Which is based upon conciliations and rapprochement
(C) Which does not satisfy their basic needs.
(D) Which is not congenial to the spiritual values of the people.
Q3: According to the passage, the root cause of class conflict is
(a) Exploitation of the have-nots by the haves.
(b) Dominant inherent acquisitive instinct in man.
(c) The paradise of material satisfaction.
(d) A social order where underprivileged are not involved in its establishment.
Q4: Which of the following statement is not true in the context of the passage?
(a) New order can be established by radically changing people’s outlook towards it.
(b) Enforced egalitarianism can be the cause of its own destruction.
(c) Adoption of ideal of trusteeship can minimize possessive instinct.
(d) Ideal of new order is to secure maximum material satisfaction.
Q5: According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(a) In establishing the social order of Gandhi’s pattern, possibility” of a conflict between different classes of society hardly existed.
(b) A social order based on truth and nonviolence alone can help the achievement of political freedom.
(c) It is difficult to change men’s mind and attitude towards property.
(d) In an egalitarian society, material satisfaction can be enjoyed only at the expense of other.
Q6: According to the passage, the adoption of ideal of trusteeship means
(a) adoption of the ideal by the have-nots for the benefit of the society.
(b) Equating peace and progress with material satisfaction.
(c) Voluntary, enlightened renunciation of possessive instinct by the privileged class.
(d) Substituting spiritual values for material values by those who live in paradise of satisfaction.
Q7: According to the passage, egalitarianism will not survive if
(a) Underprivileged people are not involved in its establishment.
(b) It is achieved by resorting to physical force.
(c) It is based on voluntary renunciation.
(d) People’s outlook towards it is not radically changed.
Q8: According to the passage, man values his possessions more than his life because
(a) He is endowed with possessive instinct.
(b) He has inherent desire to share his possessions with others.
(c) Only his possessions help him to earn love and respect from his descendants.
(d) Through possessions he can preserve his name after his death.
Q9: According to the passage, which was the unfinished part of Gandhiji’s experiments?
(a) Establishment of an egalitarian society
(b) Achieving total political freedom for the country
(c) Educating people to avoid class conflict
(d) Radically changing men’s mind and attitude towards truth and non-violence
Q10: Which of the following statement is not true in the context of the passage?
(a) True egalitarian can be achieved by giving up one’s possessions under compulsions.
(b) Possessive instinct is a natural part of human being.
(c) Man values his life less than his possession
(d) In the political struggle the fight was against the alien rule.